Radiography Curriculum

Sponsored by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists, 15000 Central Ave. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123-3909.

Radiography Curriculum was produced by the ASRT Radiography Curriculum Revision Project Group.

©Copyright 2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists. All rights reserved. Schools and educational programs have the ASRT’s permission to use the objectives sections of the curriculum as written. The remaining sections of the curriculum can be used with attribution for the purposes of course development, program promotion or course and program documentation. For other uses, contact the ASRT for reprint permission at curricula@asrt.org.

Introduction

The first ASRT Radiography Curriculum was written in 1952. Throughout its history, the goal of this document has been to outline a common body of knowledge that is essential for entry-level radiographers. The challenge of any curriculum is to give students a solid foundation of traditional core knowledge while also providing opportunities to develop skills that will serve them beyond the entry-level of the radiologic sciences. Beginning in January 2015, candidates seeking professional certification through the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) are required to possess, at minimum, an associate degree. The focus of this document is on pre-professional core content that can be expanded with institution-specific content in order to fulfill the requirements for an academic degree.

Organization:

The document itself is divided into three content areas: pre-professional core, optional content and radiologic science resources.

  • Pre-professional core content: This content makes up the body of the document and includes educational content the professional community supports as essential preparation to enter the field of radiography. Specific instructional methods were intentionally omitted to allow for programmatic prerogative as well as creativity in instructional delivery.
  • Optional content: Content in this section will assist programs wishing to enhance the curriculum with select topics intended to satisfy the mission of their program or the requirements of their local employment market.

A list of learning objectives associated with each content area has been incorporated into this document to serve as a resource for programs. Learning objectives are offered as a guide. Faculty members are encouraged to expand these fundamental objectives as they incorporate them into their curricula.

Radiography programs are encouraged to organize the content and objectives to meet their goals and needs. In particular, students must develop skills in areas such as information literacy, scientific inquiry, self-reflection, collaboration and mentoring. Advances in technology and employer expectations require more independent judgment by radiographers.

The ASRT Radiography Curriculum serves as a blueprint for educators to follow in designing their programs and in ensuring that their programs match the profession’s standards. In the radiologic sciences, educators not only must teach the essential clinical skills that employers expect of graduates, but also must ensure that students will be prepared to take certification examinations offered by the ARRT. This curriculum allows for flexibility to meet the needs of the local community, yet also satisfy the requirements for accreditation standards and the ARRT examination. The curriculum also offers a foundation for a transition to baccalaureate studies and, more importantly, for individual lifelong learning.

Professional Characteristics:

This curriculum is designed to ensure that entry-level radiographers possess the technical skills outlined in the ASRT Radiography Practice Standards. In addition, the graduate should exhibit the following professional characteristics:

  • Prudent judgment in administering ionizing radiation to produce diagnostic images.
  • A focus on providing optimal patient care in an evolving and diverse society.
  • An understanding of the challenges associated with providing direct patient care in today’s health care setting.
  • The ability to work collaboratively in a dynamic healthcare environment.
  • The skills to research and evaluate sources of information to be utilized in evidence-based practice.
  • Stewardship over the security and confidentiality of patient medical information.
  • Skills that promote lifelong learning.
  • A willingness to collaborate with others in the community to promote standards of excellence in the medical imaging sciences.
  • A willingness to contribute to the education and clinical skill development of radiologic science students.

General Education:

General education is an integral part of the development of a professional radiographer. The content is designed to assist in developing skills in communication, human diversity, scientific inquiry, critical thinking and judgment. All these skills are required to perform the responsibilities of an entry-level radiographer. Knowledge gained from general education serves to enhance the content and application of the radiography curriculum.

Starting in 2015, the ARRT began requiring an associate degree in order to apply for the certification exam for radiography, eliminating the need for specific general education requirements in the radiography curriculum. Because individual states, accreditation agencies, and educational systems have unique general education requirements, the content listed below is designed to serve only as guidance for program development.

Postsecondary general education should be gained through courses that provide college credit and meet the general content objectives listed below:

Mathematics and reasoning

  • Demonstrate skills in analysis, quantification and synthesis.
  • Apply problem-solving or modeling strategies.

Communication

  • Write and read critically.
  • Speak and listen critically.
  • Perceive, gather, organize and present information.
  • Locate, evaluate and synthesize material from diverse sources and points of view.

Humanities

  • Demonstrate respect for diverse populations.
  • Define ethics and the role they play in personal and professional interactions.
  • Critically examine personal attitudes and values.

Information systems

  • Use computerized systems to acquire, transfer and store digital information.
  • Use technology to retrieve, evaluate and apply information.

Social sciences

  • Adapt interactions to meet the cultural and psychological needs of individuals.
  • Describe individual and collective behavior.
  • Exhibit and develop leadership skills.
  • Exercise responsible and productive citizenship.
  • Function as a public-minded individual.

Natural sciences

  • Arrive at conclusions using the scientific method.
  • Make informed judgments about science-related topics.
  • Develop a scientific vocabulary.

Pre-professional Core Content

This content makes up the body of the document and reflects educational content the professional community supports as essential for readiness to enter the radiography field.

Introduction to Radiologic Science and Health Care

Description

The content below provides an overview of the foundations of radiography and the practitioner’s role in health care delivery. Principles, practices and policies of health care organizations should be examined and discussed in addition to the professional responsibilities of the radiographer.

Content

  1. The Health Science Professions

    1. Radiologic technology
      1. Applications specialist
      2. Bone densitometry
      3. Breast sonography
      4. Cardiac-interventional radiography
      5. Computed tomography
      6. Diagnostic medical sonography
      7. Diagnostic radiography
      8. Education
      9. Magnetic resonance imaging
      10. Mammography
      11. Management
      12. Medical dosimetry
      13. Multiskilled (fusion technology)
      14. Nuclear medicine advanced associate
      15. Nuclear medicine technology
      16. PACS administration/informatics
      17. Quality management
      18. Radiation therapy
      19. Radiologist assistant
      20. Vascular sonography
      21. Vascular-interventional radiography
    2. Other health care professions
  2. The Health Care Environment

    1. Health care settings
      1. Hospitals
      2. Clinics
      3. Mental health facilities
      4. Long-term/residential facilities
      5. Hospice
      6. Outpatient/ambulatory care
      7. Preventive care
      8. Home health care
      9. Telemedicine
      10. Other (e.g., jails, prisons, medical examiner offices)
    2. Payment/reimbursement systems
      1. Self-pay
      2. Insurance
      3. Government programs
  3. Medical Terminology

    1. The word-building process
      1. Basic elements
        1. Root words
        2. Prefixes
        3. Suffixes
        4. Combination forms
    2. Translation of medical terms into layman’s terms
    3. Correct pronunciation of medical terms
  4. Medical Abbreviations and Symbols

    1. Abbreviations
      1. Examples
      2. Interpretations
      3. Restrictions (e.g., The Joint Commission’s “Do Not Use” list)
    2. Pharmaceutical symbols and terms
  5. Procedures and Terminology

    1. Radiography
    2. Other imaging modalities
    3. Radiation oncology
  6. Understanding Orders, Requests and Diagnostic Reports

    1. Procedure orders and requests
      1. Patient identification
      2. Procedures ordered
      3. Patient history
      4. Clinical indications
      5. Ordering physician/provider
    2. Diagnostic reports
      1. Content
      2. Interpretation
  7. Hospital Organization

    1. Mission
    2. Administrative services
      1. Governing board
      2. Hospital administration
      3. Admissions
      4. Information systems
      5. Procurement
      6. Accounting
      7. Support services
      8. Human resources
    3. Medical services
      1. Physicians
      2. Clinical services
      3. Clinical support services
  8. Radiology Organization

    1. Professional personnel
      1. Administrators/managers
      2. Radiologists
      3. Radiologic technologists
      4. Radiologist assistants
      5. Radiology nurses
      6. Medical physicists
    2. Support personnel
      1. Information Technology staff
      2. Clerical staff
      3. Other (e.g., patient transporters, aids)
    3. Educational personnel
      1. Program director
      2. Clinical coordinator
      3. Didactic instructor
      4. Clinical instructor
      5. Clinical staff
  9. Accreditation

    1. Health care institutions
    2. Modalities (e.g., ACR)
    3. Educational
      1. Programmatic accreditation (e.g., Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology [JRCERT])
      2. Regional
      3. Other
  10. Regulatory Agencies

    1. Federal
    2. State
  11. Professional Credentialing

    1. National certification and registration (e.g., American Registry of Radiologic Technologists [ARRT])
    2. State licensure
  12. Professional Organizations

    1. Purpose, function and activities
    2. Types
      1. Local
      2. State
      3. National
      4. International
      5. Other (e.g., student)
  13. Professional Development and Advancement

    1. Required
      1. Continuing education
      2. Continuing qualifications requirements (CQR)
    2. Clinical experience
    3. Continuing education opportunities
      1. Postprimary certification
      2. Collegiate/educational programs
      3. Self-learning activities
      4. Professional conferences
    4. Employment considerations
      1. Geographic mobility
      2. Economic factors
      3. Workforce needs
    5. Advancement opportunities
      1. Education
      2. Administration
      3. Advanced practice
      4. Medical physics
      5. Research
      6. Industrial
      7. Medical informatics
      8. Sales/applications

Introduction to Radiologic Science and Health Care

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Identify health science professions that participate in the total health care of the patient.
  • Identify various settings involved in the delivery of health care.
  • Discuss the reimbursement/payment options for health care services.
  • Discuss the role and value of a mission statement to the operation of a health care institution.
  • Describe relationships and interdependencies of departments within a health care institution.
  • Discuss the responsibilities and relationships of all personnel in the radiology department.
  • Differentiate between accreditation types.
  • Identify state and federal regulatory agencies.
  • Define credentialing, national certification and registration and state licensure.
  • Describe the types, purposes and functions of professional organizations.
  • Discuss career opportunities and advancement for the radiographer.
  • Identify the benefits of continuing education as related to improved patient care and professional development.
  • Apply the word-building process of medical terminology.
  • Interpret medical abbreviations and symbols.
  • Critique orders, requests and diagnostic reports.
  • Define medical imaging and radiation oncology terms.
  • Translate medical terms, abbreviations and symbols from medical reports into layman’s terms.

Ethics and Law in the Radiologic Sciences

Description

This content provides a foundation in ethics and law related to the practice of medical imaging. An introduction to terminology, concepts and principles will be presented. Students will examine a variety of ethical and legal issues found in clinical practice.

Content

  1. Ethics and Ethical Behavior

    1. Origins and history of medical ethics
    2. Ethical principles
    3. Moral reasoning
    4. Personal behavior standards
    5. Competence
    6. Professional attributes
    7. Standards of practice
    8. Self-assessment and self-governance
    9. Codes of professional ethics
    10. Systematic analysis of ethical problems
    11. Ethical violations and sanctions
  2. Ethical Issues in Health Care

    1. Individual and societal rights
    2. Cultural considerations
    3. Economical considerations
    4. Technology
    5. Scarce resources
    6. Access to quality health care
    7. Human experimentation and research
    8. End-of-life issues
    9. Ethical research
      1. Institutional review board approval
      2. Data collection
      3. Data reporting
    10. Radiology-specific
      1. Operation and manipulation of electronic data
        1. Image cropping
        2. Editing metadata
        3. Editing image data
      2. ALARA
        1. Dose creep
        2. Alteration of exposure indicators
  3. Legal Issues

    1. Parameters of legal responsibility
    2. HIPAA
      1. Confidentiality of patient medical records (written and electronic)
      2. Electronic communication (e.g., cell phones, social networking sites, email, photography)
    3. Torts
      1. Intentional
      2. Unintentional
  4. Legal Doctrines and Standards

    1. Legal risk reduction and risk management
    2. Medical records
      1. Timely, accurate and comprehensive methods of documentation
      2. Radiographic images as legal documents
      3. Manipulation of electronic data
  5. Patient Consent

    1. Definition
    2. Types
    3. Condition for valid consent
    4. Documentation of consent
    5. Right of refusal

Ethics and Law in the Radiologic Sciences

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Discuss the origins of medical ethics.
  • Apply medical and professional ethics in the context of a broader societal ethic.
  • Explain the role of ethical behavior in health care delivery.
  • Explain concepts of personal honesty, integrity, accountability, competence and compassion as ethical imperatives in health care.
  • Identify legal and professional standards and relate each to practice in health professions.
  • Identify specific situations and conditions that give rise to ethical dilemmas in health care.
  • Explain select concepts embodied in the principles of patients’ rights, the doctrine of informed consent and other issues related to patients’ rights.
  • Explain the legal implications of professional liability, malpractice, professional negligence and other legal doctrines applicable to professional practice.
  • Describe the importance of timely, accurate and comprehensive methods of documentation as a legal and ethical imperative.
  • Explore theoretical situations and questions relating to the ethics of health care delivery.
  • Explain legal terms, principles, doctrines and laws specific to the radiologic sciences.
  • Outline the conditions necessary for a valid malpractice claim.
  • Describe institutional and professional liability protection typically available to the radiographer.
  • Describe the components and implications of informed consent.
  • Identify standards for informed consent and disclosure of protected health information.
  • Describe how consent forms are used relative to specific radiographic procedures.
  • Differentiate between civil and criminal liability.
  • Define tort and explain the differences between intentional and unintentional torts.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Description

Content establishes a knowledge base in anatomy and physiology. Components of the cells, tissues, organs and body systems are described and discussed. The fundamentals of sectional anatomy relative to routine radiography are addressed.

Content

  1. Anatomical Nomenclature

    1. Directional references
      1. Anterior/posterior
      2. Ventral/dorsal
      3. Medial/lateral
      4. Superior/inferior
      5. Proximal/distal
      6. Cephalad/caudad
    2. Body planes
      1. Median/midsagittal
      2. Sagittal
      3. Coronal
      4. Transverse
      5. Longitudinal
    3. Body cavities – structural limits, function, contents
      1. Cranial
      2. Thoracic
      3. Abdominal/pelvic
  2. Chemical Composition

    1. Atoms
    2. Chemical bonds
    3. Inorganic compounds
      1. Acids
      2. Bases
      3. Salts
      4. Water
    4. Organic compounds
      1. Carbohydrates
      2. Lipids
      3. Proteins
      4. Nucleotides
        1. DNA
        2. RNA
  3. Cell Structure and Genetic Control

    1. Cell membrane
      1. Chemistry
      2. Structure
      3. Physiology
      4. Transport processes
        1. Diffusion
        2. Osmosis
        3. Filtration
        4. Active transport and physiological pumps
        5. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
    2. Cytoplasm
    3. Organelles
      1. Nucleus
      2. Ribosomes
      3. Endoplasmic reticulum
      4. Golgi complex
      5. Mitochondria
      6. Lysosomes
      7. Peroxisomes
      8. Cytoskeleton
      9. Centrosome and centrioles
      10. Flagella and cilia
    4. Gene action
      1. Protein synthesis
      2. Nucleic acid (RNA/DNA) synthesis
      3. Transcription
      4. Translation
    5. Cell reproduction
      1. Mitosis
      2. Meiosis
    6. Aberration and abnormal cell division
  4. Metabolism

    1. Anabolism
    2. Catabolism
    3. Enzymes and metabolism
    4. Carbohydrate metabolism
    5. Lipid metabolism
    6. Protein metabolism
    7. Regulation and homeostasis
  5. Tissues

    1. Types of tissue
      1. Epithelial
      2. Connective
      3. Muscle
      4. Nerve
    2. Tissue repair
  6. Skeletal System

    1. Osseous tissue
      1. Structural organization
        1. Medullary cavity/marrow
        2. Compact bone
        3. Cancellous bone
        4. Periosteum
        5. Cartilage
      2. Development and growth
        1. Physis
        2. Diaphysis
        3. Epiphyseal line
        4. Metaphysis
      3. Classification and markings
        1. Long
        2. Short
        3. Flat
        4. Irregular
        5. Processes and bony projections
        6. Depressions and openings
    2. Divisions
      1. Axial
        1. Skull
        2. Hyoid bone
        3. Vertebral column
        4. Thorax
      2. Appendicular
        1. Pectoral girdle
        2. Upper extremities
        3. Pelvic girdle
        4. Lower extremities
      3. Sesamoids
      4. Functions
    3. Articulations
      1. Types
        1. Synarthroses, fibrosis
        2. Amphiarthroses, cartilaginous
        3. Diarthroses, synovial
      2. Movement
  7. Muscular System

    1. Types and characteristics
      1. Smooth
      2. Cardiac
      3. Skeletal
    2. Functions
  8. Nervous System

    1. Neural tissue – structure and function
      1. Neurons
      2. Neuroglia
    2. Central nervous system – structure and function
      1. Brain and cranial nerves
      2. Spinal cord
    3. Peripheral nervous system – structure and function
      1. Sympathetic nerves
      2. Parasympathetic nerves
  9. Sensory System

    1. General senses
      1. Nociperception
      2. Chemoreception
      3. Thermoreception
      4. Mechanoreception
    2. Special senses – structure, function
      1. Vision
      2. Hearing and equilibrium
      3. Olfaction
      4. Gustation
      5. Tactile
  10. Endocrine System

    1. Primary organs - structure, function and location
    2. Homeostatic control
    3. Endocrine tissue and related hormones
      1. Pituitary (hypophysis) gland
      2. Pineal gland
      3. Thyroid gland
      4. Parathyroid gland
      5. Adrenal (suprarenal) glands
      6. Heart and kidneys
      7. Digestive system
      8. Pancreas
      9. Testes
      10. Ovaries
      11. Thymus
      12. Placenta
  11. Digestive System

    1. Primary organs – structure, function and location
      1. Oral cavity
      2. Esophagus
      3. Stomach
      4. Small intestine
      5. Large intestine
      6. Rectum
    2. Accessory organs – structure, function and location
      1. Salivary glands
      2. Pancreas
      3. Liver
      4. Gallbladder
    3. Digestive processes
      1. Ingestion
      2. Peristalsis
      3. Segmentation
      4. Digestion
      5. Absorption
      6. Defecation
  12. Cardiovascular System

    1. Blood
      1. Composition
      2. Clotting system
      3. Hemopoiesis
      4. Function
    2. Heart and vessels
      1. Anatomy
      2. Function
    3. Electrocardiogram (ECG) tracings correlated to normal cardiac rhythm
  13. Lymphatic System and Immunity

    1. Lymphatic system
      1. Lymph vessels
      2. Lymphatic organs
        1. Thymus
        2. Lymph nodes
        3. Spleen
      3. Lymphatic tissue
        1. Tonsils
        2. Peyer’s patches
    2. Immune system
      1. Nonspecific defenses
        1. Physical barriers
        2. Leukocytes
        3. Immunological surveillance
      2. B-cell response
        1. Production
        2. Types of immunoglobulins
        3. Function
        4. Regulation of B-cell response
      3. T-cell response
        1. Production
        2. Types
        3. Function
        4. Regulation of T-cell response
      4. Passive and active immunity
  14. Respiratory System

    1. Components, structure and function
      1. Nose and sinus cavities
      2. Pharynx
      3. Larynx
      4. Trachea
      5. Bronchi
      6. Lungs
      7. Thorax
    2. Physiology
      1. Pulmonary ventilation
      2. Alveolar gas exchange
      3. Transport of blood gases
      4. Tissue gas exchange
      5. Control and regulation of respiration
  15. Urinary System

    1. Components, structure and function
      1. Kidneys
      2. Ureters
      3. Bladder
      4. Urethra
    2. Urine
      1. Physical characteristics
      2. Chemical composition
    3. Micturition
  16. Reproductive System

    1. Male – structure, function and location
      1. External organs
      2. Internal organs
    2. Female – structure, function and location
      1. External organs
      2. Internal organs
      3. Mammary glands
    3. Reproductive physiology
      1. Ovarian cycle
      2. Menstrual cycle
      3. Aging and menopause
  17. Introduction to Sectional Anatomy

    1. Structures and locations
      1. Head/neck
        1. Brain
        2. Cranium
        3. Major vessels
      2. Thorax
        1. Mediastinum
        2. Lung
        3. Heart
        4. Airway
        5. Major vessels
      3. Abdomen
        1. Liver
        2. Biliary
        3. Spleen
        4. Pancreas
        5. Kidneys and ureters
        6. Peritoneum
        7. Retroperitoneum
        8. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
        9. Major vessels

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Discuss the basics of anatomical nomenclature.
  • Describe the chemical composition of the human body.
  • Identify cell structure and elements of genetic control.
  • Explain the essentials of human metabolism.
  • Classify tissue types, describe the functional characteristics of each and give examples of their location within the human body.
  • Describe the composition and characteristics of bone.
  • Identify and locate the bones of the human skeleton.
  • Identify bony processes and depressions found on the human skeleton.
  • Describe articulations of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
  • Differentiate the primary and secondary curves of the spine.
  • Summarize the functions of the skeletal system.
  • Label different types of articulations.
  • Compare the types, locations and movements permitted by the different types of articulations.
  • Examine how muscle is organized at the gross and microscopic levels.
  • Differentiate between the structures of each type of muscle tissue.
  • State the function of each type of muscle tissue.
  • Name and locate the major muscles of the skeleton.
  • Differentiate between the structure and function of different types of nerve cells.
  • State the structure of the brain and the relationship of its component parts.
  • Describe brain functions.
  • List the meninges and describe the function of each.
  • Outline how cerebrospinal fluid forms, circulates and functions.
  • Describe the structure and function of the spinal cord.
  • Determine the distribution and function of cranial and spinal nerves.
  • Summarize the structure and function of components that comprise the autonomic nervous system.
  • Describe the structures and functions of the components that comprise the human eye and ear.
  • List the component body parts involved in the senses of smell and taste.
  • List the somatic senses.
  • Define endocrine.
  • Describe the characteristics and functions of the components that comprise the endocrine system.
  • Describe the hard and soft palates.
  • Describe the structure and function of the tongue.
  • Identify the structure, function and locations of the salivary glands.
  • Describe the composition and characteristics of the primary organs of the digestive system.
  • Describe the function(s) of each primary organ of the digestive system.
  • Differentiate between the layers of tissue that comprise the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum.
  • Differentiate between peritoneum, omentum and mesentery.
  • List and label the accessory organs of the digestive system and describe their function.
  • Identify the secretions and function of each accessory organ of the digestive system.
  • Explain the purpose of digestion.
  • List the digestive processes that occur in the body.
  • Describe the composition and characteristics of blood.
  • List the types of blood cells and state their functions.
  • Differentiate between blood plasma and serum.
  • Outline the clotting mechanism.
  • List the blood types.
  • Explain the term Rh factor.
  • Explain the antigen/antibody relationship and its use in blood typing.
  • Label the parts of the human heart.
  • Describe the flow of blood through the body and identify the main vessels.
  • Describe the structure and function of arteries, veins and capillaries.
  • Differentiate between arterial blood in systemic circulation and arterial blood in pulmonary circulation.
  • Outline the major pathways of lymphatic circulation.
  • Correlate cardiac electrophysiology to a normal ECG tracing.
  • Differentiate between nonspecific defenses and specific immunity.
  • Explain antibody production and function.
  • List the different types and functions of T- and B-cells and explain their functions.
  • Label the components of the respiratory system.
  • Describe the physiology and regulation of respiration.
  • Label the parts of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
  • Describe the function of each organ of the urinary system.
  • Describe the composition and formation of urine.
  • Explain micturition.
  • Label the anatomy of the male and female reproductive organs.
  • Analyze the function of each of the male and female reproductive organs.
  • Identify major sectional anatomical structures found within the head and neck, thorax and abdomen.

Pharmacology and Venipuncture

Description

Content provides basic concepts of pharmacology, venipuncture and administration of diagnostic contrast agents and intravenous medications. The appropriate delivery of patient care during these procedures is emphasized.

Considerations

Students should successfully complete patient care objectives (including CPR and basic life support [BLS] certification), as well as objectives related to the anatomy and physiology of the circulatory and excretory systems prior to the introduction of this educational content.

Though regulations regarding the administration of contrast media and intravenous medications vary between states and institutions, the official position of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists is that venipuncture falls within the radiologic technology profession’s general scope of practice and practice standards. Therefore, it should be included in the didactic and clinical curriculum along with demonstrated competencies in all appropriate disciplines regardless of the state or institution where the curriculum is taught.

In states or institutions where students are permitted to perform intravenous injections, the program has specific ethical and legal responsibilities to the patient and the student. The student shall be assured that:

  • Legal statutes allow student radiographers to perform venipuncture.
  • Professional liability coverage is adequate.
  • Adequate supervision is provided.
  • Appropriate, structured laboratory objectives are identified.
  • Evaluation and demonstration of competency occur before venipuncture is performed unsupervised.

Content

  1. Drug Nomenclature

    1. Chemical name
    2. Generic name
    3. Trade name
  2. Drug Classification

    1. Chemical group
    2. Mechanism and site of action
    3. Primary effect
  3. General Pharmacologic Principles

    1. Pharmacokinetics
    2. Pharmacodynamics
    3. Pharmacogenetics
  4. Six Rights of Drug Safety

    1. The right medication
    2. The right dose
    3. The right patient
    4. The right time
    5. The right route
    6. The right documentation
  5. Drug Categories Relevant to Radiography (Uses and Impact on Patient)

    1. Analgesics
    2. Anesthetic agents
    3. Antiallergic and antihistamine drugs
    4. Antianxiety drugs
    5. Antiarrhythmic drugs
    6. Antibacterial drugs
    7. Anticoagulant and coagulant drugs
    8. Antidepressants
    9. Antiemetic drugs
    10. Antihypertensive drugs
    11. Anti-inflammatory drugs
    12. Antiseptic and disinfectant agents
    13. Bronchodilators
    14. Cathartic and antidiarrheal drugs
    15. Diuretics
    16. Sedative and hypotonic drugs
    17. Vasodilators and vasoconstrictors
  6. Contrast Agents

    1. Types of compounds
      1. Metallic salts
      2. Organic iodides
        1. Ionic contrast agents
        2. Nonionic contrast agents
      3. Gaseous
    2. Beam attenuation characteristics
      1. Radiolucent (negative)
      2. Radiopaque (positive)
      3. Impact of atomic number
    3. Pharmacologic profile of contrast agents
      1. Chemical composition
      2. Absorption characteristics
      3. Distribution characteristics
      4. Metabolic characteristics
      5. Elimination characteristics
      6. Indications, actions and effects
      7. Interactions and contraindications
      8. Patient reactions
    4. Dosage
    5. Preparation
  7. Routes of Drug Administration

    1. Oral
    2. Rectal
    3. Tube or catheter
    4. Inhalation
    5. Topical
    6. Parenteral
      1. Intravenous
      2. Intra-arterial
      3. Intrathecal
      4. Intramuscular
      5. Subcutaneous
      6. Intradermal
      7. Intraosseous
  8. Venipuncture

    1. Methods
      1. Continuous infusion
      2. Intermittent infusion
      3. Direct injection
        1. Hand injection
        2. Mechanical pressure injector
    2. Sites of administration
      1. Peripheral
      2. Central
    3. Venipuncture procedures
      1. Equipment
      2. Patient identification, assessment and instructions
      3. Informed consent
      4. Dosage, dose calculations and dose-response
        1. Adults
        2. Pediatric patients
      5. Patient preparation
      6. Application of standard precautions
      7. Procedure
        1. Injection through an existing line
        2. Venipuncture
      8. Site observation
      9. Emergency medical treatment procedure
        1. Appropriate codes
        2. Emergency cart (crash cart)
        3. Emergency medications
        4. Accessory equipment
        5. Emergency medical treatment follow-up tasks
    4. Complications
      1. Infiltration
      2. Extravasation
      3. Phlebitis
      4. Air embolism
      5. Drug incompatibility
      6. Low fluid level in container
    5. Discontinuation
      1. Equipment and supplies for withdrawal
      2. Patient preparation
      3. Application of standard precautions
      4. Withdrawal procedure
      5. Site observation
      6. Patient observation
      7. Postprocedural tasks
    6. Documentation of administration
    7. Documentation of complication or reaction
  9. Current Practice Status

    1. Professional standards
      1. Scope of practice
      2. Practice standards
      3. Professional liability and negligence
    2. State statutes
    3. Employer prerogative

Pharmacology and Venipuncture

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Distinguish between the chemical, generic and trade names of various drugs.
  • Describe the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic principles of drugs.
  • Explain the uses and impact on the patient of different categories of drugs.
  • Define the categories of contrast agents and give specific examples for each category.
  • Explain the pharmacology of contrast agents.
  • Describe methods and techniques for administering various types of contrast agents.
  • Identify and describe the routes of drug administration.
  • Demonstrate appropriate venipuncture technique.
  • Differentiate between the two major sites of intravenous drug administration.
  • Identify, describe and document complications associated with venipuncture and appropriate actions to resolve these complications.
  • Discuss the various elements of initiating and discontinuing intravenous access.
  • Differentiate and document dose calculations for adult and pediatric patients.
  • Prepare for injection of contrast agents or intravenous medications using aseptic technique.
  • Explain the current legal status and professional liability issues of the radiographer’s role in contrast and drug administration.

Imaging Equipment

Description

Content establishes a knowledge base in radiographic, fluoroscopic and mobile equipment requirements and design. The content also provides a basic knowledge of quality control.

Content

  1. X-ray Circuit

    1. Electricity
      1. Potential difference
      2. Current
        1. Direct
        2. Alternating
      3. Resistance
    2. Electrical safety
      1. Ground
      2. Circuit breaker
    3. Transformers
      1. Step-up
      2. Step-down
      3. Auto transformer
    4. Components and functions
      1. Filament circuit
      2. Tube circuit
    5. Rectification
      1. Purpose
      2. Mechanisms
    6. Generator types
      1. Single phase
      2. Three phase
      3. High frequency
  2. Radiographic Equipment

    1. Fixed units
      1. Components
        1. Tubes
        2. Collimators
        3. Tables
        4. Control panels
        5. Tube support systems
        6. Wall units
        7. Potter-Bucky mechanism
      2. Equipment operation and manipulation
      3. Applications
    2. Mobile units
      1. Components
        1. Tubes
        2. Collimators
        3. Control panels
        4. Tube support systems
      2. Equipment operation and manipulation
      3. Clinical applications (e.g. ED, OR, patient rooms)
    3. Automatic exposure control (AEC)
      1. Radiation detector
        1. Ionization chamber
        2. Digital image receptor
      2. Minimum response time
      3. Backup time
      4. Alignment and positioning considerations
        1. Sensor selection
        2. Sensor configuration
        3. Sensor sensitivity
      5. Compensation issues
        1. Contrast agents
        2. Patient size
        3. Pathology
        4. Prosthetics/implants
        5. Collimation
        6. Image receptor variations
  3. Diagnostic X-ray Tubes

    1. Construction
    2. Extending tube life
      1. Warm-up procedures
      2. Rotor considerations
      3. Filament considerations
      4. Anode thermal capacity and exposure limits
      5. Tube movement
  4. Fluoroscopy

    1. Image intensified
      1. Brightness gain
      2. Flux gain
      3. Minification gain
      4. Automatic brightness control (ABC)/Automatic exposure rate control (AERC)
      5. Multi-field intensifiers
        1. Magnification
        2. Dose
      6. CCD/CMOS
      7. Fiberoptics
    2. Pulsed
      1. mA level
      2. Pulse rate
      3. Pulse width
      4. Temporal frame averaging
    3. Flat panel
      1. Direct
      2. Indirect
    4. Mobile
      1. C-arm
      2. Mini C-arm
      3. Hand-held
      4. O-arm
    5. Image quality
      1. Spatial resolution
      2. Contrast
      3. Distortion
      4. Noise
    6. Viewing systems
    7. Image recording systems
    8. Operation and manipulation
  5. Overview of Quality Control

    1. Radiographic
      1. kVp accuracy
      2. Filtration and half-value layer (HVL)
      3. Exposure reproducibility
      4. Exposure linearity
      5. Timer accuracy
      6. Beam alignment
      7. Collimator accuracy
      8. Image receptors
      9. Automatic exposure control (AEC)
    2. Fluoroscopic
      1. Exposure rate
      2. Source-to-skin distance (SSD)
      3. Automatic brightness systems (ABS)/Automatic exposure rate control (AERC)
      4. kVp accuracy
      5. Filtration and half-value layer (HVL)
      6. Exposure reproducibility
      7. Exposure linearity
      8. Focal spot size
      9. Beam alignment
      10. Collimator accuracy
      11. Visual/audible monitors
    3. Protective apparel

Imaging Equipment

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Describe potential difference, current and resistance.
  • Describe the general components and function of the x-ray circuit to include the tube and filament circuits.
  • Compare generators in terms of radiation produced and efficiency.
  • Discuss fixed and mobile radiographic equipment in terms of purpose, components, types and applications.
  • Demonstrate operation of various types of fixed and mobile radiographic equipment.
  • Describe the components and function of automatic exposure control (AEC) devices.
  • Demonstrate proper use of AEC devices.
  • Describe the components and function of diagnostic x-ray tubes.
  • Explain methods used to extend x-ray tube life.
  • Discuss fixed and mobile fluoroscopic equipment in terms of purpose, components, types and applications.
  • Explain image-intensified, flat panel and pulsed fluoroscopy.
  • Indicate the purpose, construction and application of the fluoroscopic monitor.
  • Discuss quality control (QC) for imaging equipment and accessories.
  • Evaluate the results of standard QC tests.

Radiation Production and Characteristics

Description

Content establishes a basic knowledge of atomic structure and terminology. Also presented are the nature and characteristics of radiation, x-ray production and the fundamentals of photon interactions with matter.

Content

  1. Structure of the Atom

    1. Composition
      1. Nucleus
      2. Structure – proton and electron balance
      3. Electron shells
        1. Binding energy
        2. Valence shell
        3. Ionization
        4. Excitation
    2. Nomenclature
      1. Atomic number
      2. Mass number
  2. Nature of Radiation

    1. Radiation
      1. Electromagnetic
        1. Spectrum
        2. Wave-particle duality
        3. Properties (e.g., frequency, wavelength, velocity)
      2. Particulate
        1. Types
        2. Characteristics
      3. Nonionizing (excitation) vs. ionizing
        1. Energy
        2. Probability
    2. Radioactivity
      1. Radioactive decay
        1. Alpha emission
        2. Beta emission
        3. Gamma emission
      2. Half-life (T½)
  3. X-ray Production

    1. Historical introduction
    2. Target interactions
      1. Bremsstrahlung
      2. Characteristic
    3. Common terms related to the x-ray beam
      1. Primary beam
      2. Exit/remnant beam
      3. Leakage radiation
      4. Off-focus/stem radiation
    4. Conditions necessary for x-ray production
      1. Source of electrons
      2. Acceleration of electrons
      3. Focusing the electron stream
      4. Deceleration of electrons
    5. Factors that affect x-ray emission spectrum
      1. kVp
      2. mA
      3. Time
      4. Atomic number of target
      5. Filtration
      6. Generator phasing
  4. Interaction of Photons with Matter

    1. Transmission of photons
      1. Attenuation
      2. Exit/remnant radiation
    2. Types and descriptions
      1. Unmodified scattering (coherent)
      2. Photoelectric effect
      3. Modified scattering (Compton)
    3. Probability of occurrence
      1. Atomic number
      2. Photon energy
      3. Tissue volume
      4. Part thickness
    4. Effect on image
    5. Patient and operator dose effects

Radiation Production and Characteristics

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Describe fundamental atomic structure.
  • Explain the processes of ionization and excitation.
  • Describe the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Describe wavelength and frequency and how they are related to velocity.
  • Explain the relationship of energy, wavelength and frequency.
  • Explain the wave-particle duality phenomena.
  • Identify the properties of x-rays.
  • Describe particulate radiation.
  • Differentiate between ionizing and nonionizing radiation.
  • Describe radioactivity and radioactive decay in terms of alpha, beta and gamma emission.
  • Compare the production of bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiations.
  • Describe the conditions necessary to produce x-radiation.
  • Describe the x-ray emission spectrum.
  • Explain the factors that affect the x-ray emission spectrum.
  • Discuss various photon interactions with matter.
  • Discuss relationships of wavelength and frequency to beam characteristics.
  • Discuss the clinical significance of the photoelectric and modified scattering (Compton) interactions in diagnostic imaging.

Principles of Exposure and Image Production

Description

Content establishes a knowledge base in technical factors that govern the image production process.

Content

  1. Exposure Factors

    1. Distance
    2. mA
    3. Time
    4. Focal spot size
    5. kVp
    6. Grids
    7. AEC
    8. Beam restriction
    9. Filtration
  2. Receptor Exposure

    1. Factors that affect exposure receptors (e.g. anode-heel, OID, patient pathology)
    2. Receptor exposure calculations
      1. Reciprocity law
      2. 15 percent rule
      3. Grid conversion factor
      4. Direct square law/exposure maintenance formula
  3. Differential Absorption

    1. Components
      1. Anatomy
      2. Contrast agent
      3. Pathology
    2. Beam quality
      1. kVp
      2. Filtration
      3. HVL
  4. Spatial Resolution

    1. Motion
      1. Part
      2. Equipment
    2. Geometric
      1. Focal spot size
      2. Source-to-image receptor distance (SID)
      3. Object-to-image distance (OID)
    3. Digital Characteristics
      1. Pixel characteristics (e.g. size, pitch)
      2. Detector element (DEL) (e.g. size, pitch, fill-factor)
      3. Matrix size
      4. Sampling frequency
  5. Shape Distortion

    1. Foreshortening
    2. Elongation
      1. Tube/ part/ receptor relationships
      2. Display aspect ratio
  6. Magnification

    1. Geometric factors
      1. Source-to-image receptor distance (SID)
      2. Source-to-object distance (SOD)
      3. Object-to-image receptor distance (OID)
    2. Display
  7. Beam Restriction

    1. Function/purpose
      1. Reduce irradiated tissue volume
      2. Reduce patient dose
      3. Scatter reduction
    2. Types
      1. Collimators
      2. Lead Blockers
    3. Collimator components
      1. Automatic collimators
      2. Cylinders
  8. Beam Filtration

    1. Types
      1. Inherent
      2. Added
      3. Compensating
    2. Function/mechanism
    3. Impact on image characteristics
    4. Impact on HVL
  9. Scatter Radiation

    1. Prevention
      1. Collimation
      2. kVp
    2. Reduction
      1. Grid
      2. Lead masking
      3. Air gap (OID)
    3. Effects
      1. Image quality
      2. Patient dose
      3. Occupational exposure
  10. Grids

    1. Function/mechanism
    2. Construction
    3. Types
      1. Focused
      2. Parallel
      3. Linear
      4. Crossed
      5. Moving
      6. Stationary
      7. Short dimension
      8. Long dimension
    4. Characteristics
      1. Grid radius/focal range
      2. Ratio
      3. Frequency
      4. Grid conversion factor
    5. Selection
      1. kVp
      2. Patient/exam
      3. Focal range
      4. Alignment latitude
    6. Primary cutoff
  11. Exposure Factor Formulation

    1. Purpose
      1. Exposure standardization
      2. Patient exposure reduction
    2. Technique charts
      1. Fixed kVp/variable mAs
      2. Variable kVp/fixed mAs
    3. Automated systems
      1. Automatic exposure control
      2. Anatomically programmed technique

Principles of Exposure and Image Production

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Discuss practical considerations in setting standards for acceptable image quality.
  • Assess radiographic exposure on radiographic images.
  • Analyze the relationships of factors that control and affect image exposure.
  • Critique the radiographic contrast within various radiographic images.
  • Analyze the relationship of factors that control and affect radiographic contrast.
  • Critique spatial resolution on various radiographic images.
  • Analyze the relationships of factors that control and affect spatial resolution.
  • Differentiate between size and shape distortion.
  • Perform calculations to determine image magnification and percent magnification.
  • Summarize the relationship of factors that control and affect distortion.
  • Explain the rationale for using beam restriction.
  • Describe the operation and applications for different types of beam restriction.
  • Explain how beam filtration affects x-ray beam intensity, beam quality and patient exposure.
  • Describe the change in the half-value layer (HVL) when filtration is added or removed.
  • Summarize the relationship of factors affecting scattered radiation.
  • Evaluate the effects of scattered radiation on the image.
  • Compare grid types.
  • Select the most appropriate grid for a given clinical situation.
  • Interpret grid efficiency in terms of grid ratio and frequency.
  • Summarize the factors that influence grid cutoff.
  • Evaluate grid artifacts.
  • Explain the use of standardized radiographic technique charts.
  • Explain exposure factor considerations involved in selecting techniques.
  • Compare fixed kilovoltage peak (kVp) and variable kVp systems.
  • Apply the reciprocity law to clinical situations.
  • Apply conversion factors for changes in the following areas: distance, grid, image receptors, reciprocity law and the 15 percent rule.

Digital Image Acquisition and Display

Description

Content imparts an understanding of the components, principles and operation of digital imaging systems found in diagnostic radiology. Factors that impact image acquisition, display, archiving and retrieval are discussed. Principles of digital system quality assurance and maintenance are presented.

Special Note: Digital imaging is a rapidly evolving technology. Every effort has been made to provide a curriculum outline that reflects, as accurately as possible, the state of the art of this discipline as of publication. Educators are encouraged to modify this outline with up-to-date information as it becomes available from vendors, clinical sites, textbooks, and technical representatives.

Content

  1. Image Acquisition

    1. Detectors
      1. Direct conversion and thin film transistor (TFT) arrays
      2. Indirect conversion and thin film transistor (TFT) arrays
      3. Charge-coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) systems
      4. Photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate
    2. Evaluation of detector characteristics
      1. Detective quantum efficiency (DQE)
      2. Modulation transfer function (MTF)
      3. Spatial resolution
    3. Dynamic range
    4. Raw data extraction
      1. Data extraction (e.g., TFT, PSP, CCD)
      2. Analog to digital conversion
      3. Exposure field recognition
      4. Region of interest (ROI)
      5. Histogram analysis
      6. Exposure index
    5. Exposure indicators and deviation index
      1. Air kerma (e.g. K indicator)
      2. Deviation index (DI)
      3. Exposure indicators
        1. Centering and beam collimation
        2. Optimal value ranges
  2. Initial Processing

    1. Preprocessing
    2. Image analysis
      1. Segmentation
      2. Exposure field recognition
      3. Region of interest (ROI)
      4. Histogram formation
      5. Histogram analysis
    3. Rescaling
    4. Values of interest (VOI)
    5. Grayscale/look-up table (LUT)
    6. Noise reduction
    7. Smoothing
    8. Edge enhancement
    9. Equalization
  3. Post Processing

    1. Brightness adjustment
    2. Grayscale (contrast) adjustment
    3. Equalization
    4. Smoothing
    5. Edge enhancement
    6. Image reformatting (e.g., electronic masking, resizing, rotation)
  4. Image Acquisition Errors

    1. Histogram analysis
      1. Incorrect anatomic menu selection
      2. Exposure field recognition
        1. Collimation border recognition
        2. Exposure field distribution – multiple fields/plate
      3. Unexpected material in data set (e.g., metal)
      4. Overexposure
      5. Underexposure
      6. Saturation
      7. Failure of automatic rescaling – dark or light image
    2. Low intensity radiation response
      1. Impact of accumulated background radiation
      2. Image retention (e.g., ghosting)
    3. Scatter control
      1. Beam restriction
      2. Grid use
        1. Kilovoltage peak (kVp)
        2. Grid cutoff
  5. Quality Management

    1. Continuous quality improvement (CQI)
      1. Standards for quality
      2. Communications
      3. Quality management manual
      4. Responsibility and administration
      5. Test equipment, procedures and training
      6. Record-keeping
      7. Test review
      8. Evaluation
      9. Continuing education
    2. Quality Assurance and Maintenance Issues
      1. Technologist responsibilities
        1. Image quality control
          1. Exposure indicator accuracy
          2. Image integrity
      2. Imaging receptor systems
        1. Receptor maintenance
          1. Cleaning and inspection
          2. Erasure
        2. Equipment calibration
        3. Uniformity
        4. Spatial resolution
      3. Reject analysis
      4. Monitor patient exposure
        1. Part of quality assurance (QA) program
        2. Vendor-supplied software
      5. Service engineer and/or medical physicist
        1. Notification process
        2. Preventive maintenance
      6. Involvement in quality control
    3. Benefits
      1. Patient safety
      2. Reduced radiation exposure
      3. Efficacy of patient care
      4. Departmental efficiency
      5. Consistent image quality
      6. Cost-effectiveness
  6. Image Display

    1. Monitor
      1. Characteristics
        1. Aspect ratio
        2. Spatial resolution
        3. Brightness
        4. Contrast ratio
        5. Color vs. grayscale
        6. Pixels
        7. Active matrix array (i.e., AMOLED)
        8. Nematic liquid crystals
        9. Light polarization
        10. Backlighting
      2. Care and maintenance
      3. Quality control
        1. Grayscale standard display (e.g. SMPTE)
        2. Luminance
        3. Resolution
    2. Viewing conditions
      1. Ambient lighting
      2. Viewing angle
    3. Hard copy (i.e., laser film)
  7. Data Management

    1. Network connectivity
    2. Hospital/Health information system (HIS)
    3. Radiology information system (RIS)
    4. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS)
      1. System components and functions
      2. Emergency contingency plan
      3. Digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM)
        1. DICOM header
      4. DICOM metadata radiographer responsibilities
        1. Access work order (worklist)
        2. Postprocessing – image operation and manipulation
        3. Annotation issues
        4. Image transmission
        5. HIPAA
        6. Workflow
    5. Electronic medical record (EMR) or electronic health record (EHR)
    6. Teleradiology

Digital Image Acquisition and Display

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Define terminology associated with digital imaging systems.
  • Describe the various types of digital receptors.
  • Describe the response of digital detectors to exposure variations.
  • Compare the advantages and limits of each receptor type.
  • Evaluate the spatial resolution of a digital imaging system.
  • Define sampling frequency.
  • Describe the Nyquist-Shannon theorem as it relates to sampling frequency.
  • Describe the impact of sampling frequency on spatial resolution.
  • Describe the impact of detector element size on spatial resolution.
  • Describe detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for digital radiography detectors.
  • Describe modulation transfer function (MTF) as it relates to digital radiography detectors.
  • Describe the histogram and the process of histogram analysis as it relates to automatic rescaling.
  • Describe the calculation of the exposure indicator (AAPM Task Group 116).
  • Define region of interest (ROI).
  • Relate the location and size of the ROI to the appearance of the image and exposure indicator.
  • Relate how the values of interest (VOI) impact image appearance.
  • Describe the process of image stitching.
  • Relate the receptor exposure indicator values to technical factors, system calibration, part/beam/plate alignment and patient exposure.
  • Describe the response of PSP systems to background and scatter radiation.
  • Use appropriate means of scatter control.
  • Avoid grid use errors associated with grid cutoff.
  • Identify common limitations and technical problems encountered when using PSP systems.
  • Employ appropriate beam/part/receptor alignment to avoid histogram analysis errors.
  • Associate impact of image processing parameters to the image appearance.
  • Apply the fundamental principles of radiographic exposure to digital detectors.
  • Evaluate the effect of a given exposure change on histogram shape, data width and image appearance.
  • Formulate a procedure or process to minimize histogram analysis and rescaling errors.
  • Describe continuous quality improvement (CQI).
  • Differentiate between quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC).
  • List the benefits of a quality control management to the patient and to the department.
  • Examine the potential impact of digital radiographic systems on patient exposure and methods of practicing the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept with digital systems.
  • Discuss the appropriate use of electronic masking.
  • Describe picture archival and communications system (PACS) and its function.
  • Identify components of a PACS.
  • Define digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM).
  • Identify critical components of the DICOM header.
  • Describe HIPAA concerns with electronic information.
  • Identify common problems associated with retrieving/viewing images within a PACS.
  • Compare monitor types (e.g. acquisition, display).
  • Describe the components of the various types of display monitors.
  • Discuss the impact of viewing angle, luminance, ambient lighting, and pixel size on image display.
  • Describe display monitor aspect ratio and its impact on image display.

Image Analysis

Description

Content provides a basis for analyzing radiographic images. Included are the importance of optimal imaging standards, discussion of a problem-solving technique for image evaluation and the factors that can affect image quality. Actual images will be included for analysis.

Content

  1. Image Appearance Standards

    1. Establishing appearance standards
      1. Exam demands
      2. Visual acuity and perception
      3. Image viewing conditions
      4. Radiologist preferences and demands
    2. Maintaining appearance standards (QA program)
  2. Imaging Standards

    1. Purpose
    2. Problem-solving process
    3. Role of the radiologic technologist
      1. Determining cause of problems
      2. Corrective actions
        1. Recommending
        2. Implementing
    4. Establishing acceptable limits
  3. Image Appearance Characteristics

    1. Brightness
    2. Noise
      1. Random (e.g., quantum mottle, scatter)
      2. Periodic (e.g., electronic interference, detector malfunction, software)
    3. Grayscale (contrast)
    4. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
    5. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)
    6. Spatial resolution
      1. Motion
      2. Geometric
      3. Receptor and detector
    7. Contrast resolution
    8. Shape distortion
    9. Magnification
      1. Geometric
      2. Display
  4. Procedural Factors

    1. Image identification
      1. Patient information
      2. Date of examination
      3. Proper use of markers
      4. Institutional data
    2. Positioning
      1. Anatomical considerations
        1. Anatomy of interest
        2. Plane/baseline reference
        3. Central ray
          1. Location
          2. Angulation
        4. Anatomical variations
        5. Body habitus
        6. Pathology
      2. Positioning aids
    3. Exposure indicator appropriateness
    4. Radiation protection
      1. Collimation
      2. Shielding
      3. Repeated images
    5. Patient preparation
      1. Contrast agents
      2. Pre-examination preparation
    6. Artifacts
      1. Patient-related
      2. Equipment-related
        1. Radiographic
        2. Digital
        3. Display monitor
  5. Corrective Action

    1. Equipment malfunction
    2. Technical factors
    3. Procedural factors
    4. Artifacts

Image Analysis

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Discuss the elements of a radiographic image.
  • Identify anatomy on radiographic images.
  • Apply a problem-solving process used for image analysis.
  • Describe an effective image analysis method.
  • Describe the role of the radiographer in image analysis.
  • Describe contrast to noise (CNR) as it relates to digital radiography detectors.
  • Describe signal to noise (SNR) as it relates to digital radiography detectors.
  • Describe the conditions that cause quantum mottle in a digital image.
  • Apply a process for evaluating images for adequate image receptor exposure, exposure indicator contrast/grayscale/spatial resolution, identification markers and appropriate use of beam restriction.
  • Apply a process for evaluating images for acceptable limits of distortion, image artifacts, radiation fog, noise and gross exposure error.
  • Summarize the importance of proper positioning.
  • Discuss the impact of patient preparation on the resulting radiographic image.
  • Identify common equipment malfunctions that affect image quality, and corrective action.
  • Differentiate between technical factor problems, procedural factor problems and equipment malfunctions.
  • Critique images for appropriate technical, procedural and pathologic factors, and employ corrective actions if necessary.
  • Differentiate images produced by various modalities.

Radiation Biology

Description

Content provides an overview of the principles of the interaction of radiation with living systems. Radiation effects on molecules, cells, tissues and the body as a whole are presented. Factors affecting biological response are presented, including acute and chronic effects of radiation.

Content

  1. Introduction

    1. Molecule
      1. Ionic bond
      2. Covalent bond
    2. Basic cellular biology
      1. Cellular structure
        1. Cell membrane
        2. Cytoplasm
        3. Protoplasm
        4. Organelles
        5. Nucleus
      2. Cellular function
        1. Basic cell chemistry
        2. Metabolism
        3. Organic and inorganic compounds
      3. Cell proliferation
        1. Cell cycle
        2. Mitosis
        3. Meiosis
        4. Differentiation
    3. Types of ionizing radiation
      1. Electromagnetic radiation
        1. X-rays
        2. Gamma rays
      2. Particulate radiations
        1. Alpha
        2. Beta
          1. Negatron
          2. Positron
        3. Neutrons
        4. Protons
    4. Sources of medical radiation exposure
      1. Diagnostic radiology
      2. Cardiovascular-interventional radiology
      3. Nuclear medicine
      4. Radiation oncology
    5. Other sources of radiation exposure
  2. Radiation Energy Transfer

    1. Molecular effects of radiation
      1. Direct effect
        1. Target theory
          1. Target molecules
          2. Cell death
      2. Indirect effect
        1. Radiolysis of water
    2. Factors affecting energy transfer
      1. Linear energy transfer (LET)
      2. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE)
      3. Factors influencing RBE
        1. LET
        2. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER)
  3. Radiation Effects

    1. Subcellular radiation effects
      1. Radiation effects on DNA
        1. Types of damage
        2. Implications for humans
      2. Radiation effects on chromosomes
        1. Types of damage
        2. Implications for humans
    2. Cellular radiation effects
      1. Types of cell death
        1. Interphase death
        2. Mitotic (genetic) death
      2. Other effects
        1. Mitotic delay
        2. Reproductive failure
        3. Interference of function
    3. Individual radiation effects
      1. Somatic effects
        1. Short-term
        2. Long-term
        3. Stochastic (probabilistic) effects
        4. Nonstochastic (deterministic) effects
      2. Genetic effects
        1. Mutagenesis
        2. Genetically significant dose (GSD)
      3. Embryo and fetal effects
    4. Factors influencing radiation response
  4. Radiosensitivity and Response

    1. Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau
      1. Differentiation
      2. Mitotic rate
      3. Metabolic rate
    2. Cell survival and recovery
      1. Factors influencing survival
        1. Linear energy transfer (LET)
        2. Relative biologic effect (RBE)
        3. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER)
        4. Fractionation
        5. Protraction
        6. Lethal dose and LD50
    3. Systemic response to radiation
      1. Hemopoietic
      2. Integumentary
      3. Digestive
      4. Urinary
      5. Respiratory
      6. Reproductive
      7. Muscle
      8. Nervous
      9. Endocrine
    4. Radiation dose-response curves
      1. Linear, nonthreshold
      2. Nonlinear, nonthreshold
      3. Linear, threshold
      4. Nonlinear, threshold
    5. Total body irradiation
      1. Acute radiation syndrome
        1. Hemopoietic
        2. Gastrointestinal
        3. Central nervous system
      2. Stages of response and dose levels
      3. Factors that influence response
      4. Medical interventions of response
    6. Late effects of radiation
      1. Somatic responses
        1. Mutagenesis
        2. Carcinogenesis
      2. Stochastic (probabilistic) effects
      3. Non-stochastic (deterministic) effects
      4. Genetic effects
      5. Occupational risks for radiation workers
    7. Risk estimates
      1. Relative
      2. Excess
      3. Absolute

Radiation Biology

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Differentiate between ionic and covalent molecular bonds.
  • Describe principles of cellular biology.
  • Identify sources of electromagnetic and particulate ionizing radiations.
  • Discriminate between the direct and indirect effects of radiation.
  • Identify sources of radiation exposure.
  • Describe radiation-induced chemical reactions and potential biologic damage.
  • Evaluate factors influencing radiobiologic and biophysical events at the cellular and subcellular level.
  • Identify methods to measure radiation response.
  • Describe physical, chemical and biologic factors influencing the radiation response of cells and tissues.
  • Explain factors influencing radiosensitivity.
  • Recognize the clinical significance of lethal dose (LD).
  • Identify the radiosensitivity of specific cells.
  • Employ dose response curves to study the relationship between radiation dose levels and the degree of biologic response.
  • Examine effects of limited vs. total body exposure.
  • Relate short-term and long-term effects as a consequence of high and low radiation doses.
  • Differentiate between somatic and genetic radiation effects, and discuss specific diseases or syndromes associated with them.
  • Discuss stochastic (probabilistic) and nonstochastic (deterministic) effects.
  • Differentiate between the stochastic (probabilistic) and nonstochastic (deterministic) effects of radiation exposure.
  • Discuss embryonic and fetal effects of radiation exposure.
  • Discuss risk estimates for radiation-induced malignancies.
  • Discuss acute radiation syndromes.

Radiation Protection

Description

Content presents an overview of the principles of radiation protection, including the responsibilities of the radiographer for patients, personnel and the public. Radiation health and safety requirements of federal and state regulatory agencies, accreditation agencies and health care organizations are incorporated.

Content

  1. Introduction

    1. Justification for radiation protection
      1. Somatic effects
      2. Genetic effects
    2. Potential biological damage of ionizing radiation
      1. Stochastic (probabilistic) effects
      2. Nonstochastic (deterministic) effects
    3. Objectives of a radiation protection program
      1. Documentation
      2. Occupational and nonoccupational dose limits
      3. ALARA concept (optimization)
      4. Comparable risk
      5. Negligible individual dose (NID)
    4. Sources of radiation
      1. Natural
      2. Man-made (artificial)
    5. Legal and ethical responsibilities
  2. Units, Detection and Measurement

    1. Radiation units
      1. Système International d'Unités (SI Units)
        1. Exposure - Coulomb/kilogram (C/kg)
        2. Absorbed dose - Gray (Gy)
        3. Air kerma
          1. Kinetic energy release in matter
          2. Measurement unit in gray
        4. Dose equivalent - Sievert (Sv)
        5. Radioactivity - Becquerel (Bq)
      2. Traditional
        1. Exposure - Roentgen (R)
        2. Absorbed dose (Rad)
        3. Dose equivalent (Rem)
        4. Radioactivity - Curie (Ci)
    2. Dose reporting
      1. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR]) Part 20 Standards for Radiation Protection
      2. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Guidelines
        1. Dose quantities
          1. Effective dose (E)
          2. Collective effective dose (S)
          3. Average effective dose to an individual in a group exposed to a specific source (Eexp)
          4. Effective dose per individual in the U.S. population whether exposed to the specific source or not (EUS)
    3. Radiation detectors
      1. Area monitors
      2. Personal detectors
    4. Dose area product meter (DAP)
      1. Parameters
      2. Interpretation
  3. Surveys, Regulatory/Advisory Agencies and Regulations

    1. General survey procedures
      1. Qualified expert
      2. Records
    2. Equipment survey
      1. Conditions
      2. Radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment
    3. Area survey
      1. Controlled and uncontrolled areas
      2. Conditions
      3. Recommendations
      4. “Radiation Area” sign posting
      5. Monitors
    4. Regulatory/agencies
      1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
      2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
      3. EPA
      4. OSHA
      5. State agencies
    5. Advisory agencies
      1. International Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (ICRP)
      2. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
      3. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)
    6. Radiation safety officer
      1. Qualifications
      2. Responsibilities
  4. Personnel Monitoring

    1. Historical perspective
      1. Evolution of standards
      2. NRC regulations (10 CFR) Part 20 Standards for Radiation Protection
      3. NCRP recommendations
      4. ICRP recommendations
    2. Requirements for personnel monitoring
      1. Deep dose equivalent (DDE)
      2. Shallow dose equivalent (SDE)
      3. Eye dose equivalent (EDE)
      4. Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE)
    3. Methods and types of personnel monitors
      1. Film badge
      2. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
        1. Body badge
        2. Ring badge
      3. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD)
    4. Records of accumulated dose
      1. Purpose
      2. Content
      3. Length of recordkeeping
      4. Retrieval from previous employers
    5. Effective dose limits
      1. Occupational
      2. Nonoccupational limits
      3. Critical organ sites
      4. Embryo and fetus
    6. Responsibilities for radiation protection
      1. Radiographer
      2. Radiation safety officer (RSO)
      3. Facility
  5. Application

    1. Design
      1. Materials
      2. Primary barrier
      3. Secondary (scatter and leakage) barrier
      4. HVL and tenth-value layer (TVL)
      5. Factors
        1. Use (U) controlled and uncontrolled
        2. Workload (W)
        3. Occupancy (T)
        4. Distance (D)
      6. X-ray and ancillary equipment
        1. Beam-limiting devices
        2. Exposure control devices
        3. On and off switches
        4. Interlocks
        5. Visual/audible monitors (e.g. fluoroscopic timer, “beam on” notification)
        6. Emergency controls
        7. Quality control
          1. Calibration
          2. Standards
    2. Regulations and recommendations
      1. Current NRC recommendations and/or regulations
      2. Current NCRP recommendations and/or regulations
      3. Applicable state regulations
      4. Public Law 97-35 (The Patient Consumer Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981)
      5. Public awareness
        1. Background equivalent radiation time (BERT)
        2. Social marketing (Image Gently, Image Wisely)
    3. Cardinal principles in protection
      1. Time
      2. Distance
      3. Shielding
    4. Emergency procedures
  6. Patient Protection

    1. Principles (ALARA)
    2. Radiation safety practices
      1. Beam restriction
      2. Shielding
      3. Exposure factors
      4. Positioning
      5. Immobilization
    3. Education
    4. Equipment and accessories
      1. Filtration
      2. Image receptor system
    5. Fluoroscopic procedures
    6. Mobile radiography
    7. Special considerations
      1. Pediatric patients
      2. Pregnant patients
      3. Bariatric patients

Radiation Protection

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Identify and justify the need to minimize unnecessary radiation exposure of humans.
  • Explain the objectives of a radiation protection program.
  • Define radiation and radioactivity units of measurement.
  • Identify effective dose limits (EDL) for occupational and nonoccupational radiation exposure.
  • Describe the ALARA concept.
  • Identify the basis for occupational exposure limits.
  • Distinguish between perceived risk and comparable risk.
  • Describe the concept of the negligible individual dose (NID).
  • Identify ionizing radiation sources from natural and man-made sources.
  • Comply with legal and ethical radiation protection responsibilities of radiation workers.
  • Describe the relationship between irradiated area and effective dose.
  • Describe the theory and operation of radiation detection devices.
  • Identify appropriate applications and limitations for each radiation detection device.
  • Describe how isoexposure curves are used for radiation protection.
  • Identify performance standards for beam-limiting devices.
  • Describe procedures used to verify performance standards for equipment.
  • Describe the operation of various interlocking systems for equipment.
  • Identify conditions and locations evaluated in an area survey for radiation protection.
  • Distinguish between controlled and non-controlled areas and list acceptable exposure levels.
  • Describe “Radiation Area” signs and identify appropriate placement sites.
  • Describe the function of federal, state and local regulations governing radiation protection practices.
  • Describe the qualifications and responsibilities of a radiation safety officer.
  • Express the need and importance of personnel monitoring for radiation workers.
  • Describe personnel monitoring devices, including applications, advantages and limitations for each device.
  • Interpret personnel monitoring reports.
  • Compare values for individual effective dose limits for occupational radiation exposures (annual and lifetime).
  • Identify effective dose limits for the embryo and fetus in occupationally exposed women.
  • Distinguish between primary and secondary radiation barriers.
  • Demonstrate how the operation of various x-ray and ancillary equipment influences radiation safety and describe the potential consequences of equipment failure.
  • Perform calculations of exposure with varying time, distance and shielding.
  • Discuss the relationship between workload, energy, half-value layer (HVL), tenth-value layer (TVL), use factor and shielding design.
  • Identify emergency procedures to be followed during failures of x-ray equipment.
  • Demonstrate how time, distance and shielding can be manipulated to keep radiation exposures to a minimum.
  • Explain the relationship of beam-limiting devices to patient radiation protection.
  • Discuss added and inherent filtration in terms of the effect on patient dosage.
  • Explain the purpose and importance of patient shielding.
  • Identify various types of patient shielding and state the advantages and disadvantages of each type.
  • Use the appropriate method of shielding for a given radiographic or fluoroscopic procedure.
  • Explain the relationship of exposure factors to patient dosage.
  • Explain how patient position affects dose to radiosensitive organs.
  • Identify the appropriate image receptor that will result in an optimum diagnostic image with the minimum radiation exposure to the patient.
  • Select the immobilization techniques used to eliminate voluntary motion.
  • Describe the minimum source-to-tabletop distances for fixed and mobile fluoroscopic devices.
  • Apply safety factors for the patient, health care personnel and family members in the room during radiographic/fluoroscopic procedures.

Clinical Practice

Description

Content and clinical practice experience should be designed to sequentially develop, apply, critically analyze, integrate, synthesize and evaluate concepts and theories in the performance of radiologic procedures. Through structured, sequential, competency-based clinical assignments, concepts of team practice, patient-centered clinical practice and professional development are discussed, examined and evaluated.

Clinical practice experiences should be designed to provide patient care and assessment, competent performance of radiologic imaging and total quality management. Levels of competency and outcomes measurement ensure the well-being of the patient prior to, during and following the radiologic procedure.

Content

  1. Clinical Practice

    1. Code of ethics and professional behavior
      1. ARRT Code of Ethics incident reporting mechanisms
      2. Standards for supervision
        1. Direct
        2. Indirect
      3. Understanding the patient’s expectations, rights and responsibilities
      4. Understanding the radiographer’s professional responsibilities
    2. Professional communication
      1. Patients
      2. Patient’s family
      3. Health care team
      4. Confidentiality of patient records (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA] compliance)
    3. Radiography Practice Standards
      1. Scope of Practice
      2. Clinical Performance Standards
      3. Quality Performance Standards
      4. Professional Performance Standards
      5. ASRT’s Advisory Opinion Statements
    4. Values
      1. Personal
        1. Values development
        2. Impact on patient care
      2. Societal
        1. Rights and privileges
        2. Community values
        3. Impact on patient care
      3. Professional
        1. Values development
        2. Values conflict
        3. Impact on patient care
        4. Impact of social media
    5. Culture and diversity
      1. Societal and individual factors
      2. Socioeconomic factors
      3. Gender
      4. Ethnicity
      5. Race
      6. Age
        1. Infant
        2. Child
        3. Adolescent
        4. Adult
        5. Middle-aged
        6. Geriatric
      7. Family structure and dynamics
      8. Geographical factors
      9. Religion, spirituality and belief system
      10. Lifestyle choices and behaviors
      11. Sexual orientation
      12. Disability
  2. Procedural Performance

    1. Scheduling and sequencing of exams
    2. Order/requisition evaluation and corrective measures
    3. Facilities setup
    4. Patient assessment, clinical history, education and care
      1. Patient monitoring – emergency and nonemergency
        1. Vital signs
        2. Assessment and clinical history
        3. Equipment
        4. Patient emergencies
      2. Patient privacy and confidentiality (HIPAA)
      3. Documentation
      4. Infection control
      5. Patient education
        1. Appropriate communication style
        2. Age-specific
        3. Cultural sensitivity
        4. Socioeconomic sensitivity
        5. Patient-focused care
      6. Medical error reduction
      7. Patient safety considerations
    5. Imaging
      1. Positioning considerations
      2. Technical considerations
      3. Image acquisition
      4. Image analysis
    6. Radiation protection
      1. Principles (ALARA)
      2. Radiation safety practices
        1. Protection of the patient
        2. Protection of personnel
        3. Protection of others
      3. Education
        1. Patient and family members
        2. Other members of the healthcare team
      4. Equipment and accessories
  3. Clinical Competency

    ARRT Competency Requirements (refer to the document located at www.arrt.org)*

*Refer to ARRT Competency Requirements for mandatory and elective requirements.

Clinical Practice

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Exercise the priorities required in daily clinical practice.
  • Execute medical imaging procedures under the appropriate level of supervision.
  • Adhere to team practice concepts that focus on organizational theories, roles of team members and conflict resolution.
  • Adapt to changes and varying clinical situations.
  • Describe the role of health care team members in responding/reacting to a local or national emergency.
  • Provide patient-centered, clinically effective care for all patients regardless of age, gender, disability, special needs, ethnicity or culture.
  • Integrate the use of appropriate and effective written, oral and nonverbal communication with patients, the public and members of the health care team in the clinical setting.
  • Integrate appropriate personal and professional values into clinical practice.
  • Recognize the influence of professional values on patient care.
  • Explain how a person’s cultural beliefs toward illness and health affect his or her health status.
  • Use patient and family education strategies appropriate to the comprehension level of the patient/family.
  • Provide desired psychosocial support to the patient and family.
  • Demonstrate competent assessment skills through effective management of the patient’s physical and mental status.
  • Respond appropriately to medical emergencies.
  • Examine demographic factors that influence patient compliance with medical care.
  • Adapt procedures to meet age-specific, disease-specific and cultural needs of patients.
  • Assess the patient and record clinical history.
  • Demonstrate basic life support procedures.
  • Use appropriate charting methods.
  • Recognize life-threatening electrocardiogram (ECG) tracing.
  • Apply standard and transmission-based precautions.
  • Apply the appropriate medical asepsis and sterile technique.
  • Demonstrate competency in the principles of radiation protection standards.
  • Apply the principles of total quality management.
  • Report equipment malfunctions.
  • Examine procedure orders for accuracy and make corrective actions when applicable.
  • Demonstrate safe, ethical and legal practices.
  • Integrate the radiographer’s practice standards into clinical practice setting.
  • Maintain patient confidentiality standards and meet HIPAA requirements.
  • Demonstrate the principles of transferring, positioning and immobilizing patients.
  • Comply with departmental and institutional response to emergencies, disasters and accidents.
  • Differentiate between emergency and non-emergency procedures.
  • Adhere to national, institutional and departmental standards, policies and procedures regarding care of patients, providing radiologic procedures and reducing medical errors.
  • Select technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with the lowest radiation exposure possible.
  • Critique images for appropriate anatomy, image quality and patient identification.
  • Determine corrective measures to improve inadequate images.

Patient Care in Radiologic Sciences

Description

Content provides the concepts of optimal patient care, including consideration for the physical and psychological needs of the patient and family. Routine and emergency patient care procedures are described, as well as infection control procedures using standard precautions. The role of the radiographer in patient education is identified.

Content

  1. Health Care Team

    1. Responsibilities of the health care facility
      1. Caring for all patients regardless of condition
      2. Promoting health
      3. Preventing illness
      4. Education
      5. Research
    2. Members and responsibilities
    3. Responsibilities of the radiographer
      1. Performing radiographic examination
      2. Performing patient care and assessment
      3. Adhering to radiation protection guidelines
      4. Following practice standards
      5. Assisting the radiologist
  2. Professionalism and Communication in Patient Care

    1. Health and illness continuum
    2. Developing professional attitudes
      1. Teamwork
      2. Work ethic
      3. Health role model
      4. Sympathy
      5. Empathy
      6. Assertiveness
    3. Age- and generation-specific communication
      1. Neonatal
      2. Pediatric
      3. Adolescence
      4. Young adulthood
      5. Middle adulthood
      6. Geriatric
    4. Communication
      1. Verbal
      2. Nonverbal communication
      3. Language and cultural variations
        1. Challenges
        2. Hearing, vision and speech impairments
        3. Impaired mental function
        4. Altered states of consciousness
        5. Human diversity
        6. Artificial speech
      4. Other factors that impede communication
        1. Colloquialisms and slang
        2. Medical terminology
      5. Patient interactions
        1. Eye contact
        2. Volume and speed of speech
        3. Effective listening
        4. Feedback
        5. Cultural sensitivity
      6. Communication with families
      7. Communication with other health care professionals (e.g. SBAR, TeamSTEPPS)
    5. Psychological considerations
      1. Dying and death
        1. Understanding the process
        2. Aspects of death
          1. Emotional
          2. Personal
          3. Physical
        3. Grief and counseling
        4. Patient support services
          1. Family and friends
          2. Pastoral care
          3. Patient-to-patient support groups
          4. Psychological support groups
          5. Hospice
          6. Home care
      2. Factors affecting patient’s emotional responses
        1. Age
        2. Gender
        3. Marital/family status
        4. Socioeconomic factors
        5. Cultural and religious variations
        6. Physical condition
        7. Self-image
        8. Past health care experiences
          1. Beliefs
          2. Attitudes
          3. Prejudices
          4. Self-awareness
  3. Patient/Radiographer Interactions

    1. Patient identification methods
      1. Interviewing and questioning
      2. Chart/requisition
      3. Wrist band
      4. Institution-specific
    2. Procedure questions and explanations
      1. Positioning
      2. Length of procedure
      3. Immobilization devices
      4. Machine movement/sounds
    3. Interaction with patient’s family members and friends
  4. Safety and Transfer

    1. Environmental safety
      1. Fire
      2. Electrical
      3. Hazardous materials
        1. Chemicals
        2. Chemotherapy
      4. Radioactive materials
      5. Personal belongings
      6. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
      7. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    2. Body mechanics
      1. Proper body alignment
      2. Proper movement
    3. Patient transfer and movement
      1. Assess the patient’s mobility
      2. Rules for safe patient transfer
      3. Wheelchair transfers
      4. Stretcher transfers
        1. Sheet transfer
        2. Log roll
        3. Positioning for safety, comfort or exams
        4. Transfer devices
    4. Fall prevention
    5. Patient Positions
      1. Supine
      2. Prone
      3. Decubitus
      4. Oblique
      5. Fowler’s
      6. Semi-Fowler’s
      7. Sims’
      8. Trendelenburg
      9. Lithotomy
    6. Safety and immobilization
      1. Types
      2. Applications
      3. Devices
        1. Adult
        2. Pediatric
    7. MR safety
    8. Incident reporting
      1. Legal considerations
      2. Documentation
      3. Procedures
  5. Evaluating Physical Needs

    1. Assess patient status
      1. Evaluation methodology
      2. Clinical information
    2. Vital signs – ranges and values
      1. Temperature
      2. Pulse
      3. Pulse oximetry
      4. Respiration
      5. Blood pressure
      6. Normal values
      7. Interfering factors
      8. Adult vs. pediatric
      9. Documentation
    3. Acquiring and recording vital signs
      1. Procedures
      2. Demonstration
    4. Normal ranges of laboratory data
      1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
      2. Creatinine
      3. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
      4. Hemoglobin
      5. Red blood cells (RBCs)
      6. Platelets
      7. Oxygen (O2) saturation
      8. Prothrombin
      9. Partial thromboplastin time
    5. Patient chart (paper and electronic)
      1. Aspects of patient chart
      2. Retrieval of specific information
      3. Proper documentation in the chart
    6. Pain Assessment
      1. Description
      2. Intensity
      3. Location
      4. Duration
      5. Aggravating and alleviating factors
  6. Infection Control

    1. Hospital acquired
    2. Communicable
    3. Infectious pathogens
    4. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO)
    5. Other
    6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
      1. Purpose
      2. Publications and bulletins
    7. Cycle of infection
      1. Infectious pathogens – bloodborne and airborne
      2. Reservoir of infection
      3. Susceptible host
      4. Transmission of disease
        1. Direct
        2. Indirect
    8. Prevent disease transmission
      1. Transmission-based precautions
      2. Health care worker
        1. Immunization
        2. Booster
        3. Post-exposure protocols
    9. Asepsis
      1. Medical
        1. Hand washing
        2. Chemical disinfectants
      2. Surgical
        1. Growth requirements for microorganisms
        2. Methods used to control microorganisms
          1. Moist heat
          2. Dry heat
          3. Gas
          4. Chemicals
          5. Radiation
        3. Procedures
          1. Opening packs
          2. Gowning/gloving
          3. Skin preparation
          4. Draping
          5. Dressing changes
        4. Packing
        5. Storage
        6. Linen
    10. Isolation techniques and communicable diseases
      1. Category-specific
      2. Disease-specific
      3. Standard precautions
    11. Procedure
      1. Gowning
      2. Gloving
      3. Masking
      4. Patient transfer
      5. Cleaning and proper disposal of contaminated waste
      6. Cleaning image receptors and imaging equipment
    12. Precautions for the compromised patient (reverse isolation)
      1. Purpose
      2. Procedure
    13. Psychological considerations
  7. Medical Emergencies

    1. Emergency equipment
    2. Latex reactions
    3. Shock
      1. Signs and symptoms
      2. Types
        1. Hypovolemic
        2. Distributive
          1. Anaphylactic
          2. Neurogenic
          3. Septic
        3. Cardiogenic
      3. Medical intervention
    4. Diabetic emergencies – signs, symptoms and interventions
      1. Hypoglycemia
      2. Hyperglycemia (ketoacidosis)
      3. Hyperosmolar coma
    5. Respiratory and cardiac failure – signs, symptoms and interventions
      1. Adult vs. pediatric
      2. Equipment
    6. Airway obstruction – signs, symptoms and interventions
    7. Cerebral vascular accident (stroke) – signs, symptoms and interventions
    8. Fainting and convulsive seizures – signs, symptoms and interventions
      1. Types
        1. Nonconvulsive (petit mal)
        2. Convulsive (grand mal)
      2. Reasons for fainting
    9. Other medical conditions
      1. Epistaxis
      2. Nausea
      3. Postural hypotension
      4. Vertigo
      5. Asthma
  8. Trauma

    1. Head injuries
      1. Glasgow coma scale
      2. Symptoms
      3. Medical intervention
    2. Spinal injuries
      1. Assessment
      2. Symptoms
      3. Medical intervention
      4. Transportation
    3. Fractures
      1. Types
      2. Symptoms
      3. Orthopedic devices
      4. Positioning
    4. Wounds
      1. Symptoms
      2. Medical intervention
    5. Burns
      1. Classifications
      2. Medical intervention
  9. Reactions to Contrast Agents

    1. Signs and symptoms
    2. Medical intervention
  10. Tubes, Catheters, Lines and Other Devices

    1. Function and handling of devices
    2. Nasogastric/nasointestinal
    3. Suction
      1. Adult vs. pediatric
      2. Special precautions
    4. Tracheostomy
      1. Suction techniques
      2. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with tracheostomy
    5. Chest (thoracostomy) tube
      1. Purpose
      2. Location
    6. Implanted devices
      1. Types
      2. Purpose
      3. Location
    7. Venous catheters
      1. Types
      2. Purpose
      3. Location
      4. Care (e.g., infection control)
      5. Access
    8. Tissue drains
    9. Oxygen administration
      1. Values
      2. Oxygen therapy
      3. Oxygen delivery systems
        1. Low-flow systems
        2. High-flow systems
      4. Special precautions
    10. Urinary collection
      1. Procedure
        1. Male
        2. Female
      2. Alternative methods of urinary drainage
    11. Ostomies
      1. Types
      2. Purpose
      3. Location
      4. Care
      5. Access
  11. Mobile and Surgical Radiography

    1. Prior to bedside procedure
      1. Verify order
    2. Steps followed during bedside procedure
    3. Bedside procedure for neonate
    4. Bedside procedure for the orthopedic patient
    5. Radiography in surgery
      1. Surgical clothing
      2. Equipment preparation
      3. Sterile field awareness
      4. Communication skills
    6. Radiation protection
      1. Patient
      2. Radiographer
      3. Other

Patient Care in Radiologic Sciences

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Identify the responsibilities of the health care facility and members of the health care team.
  • List the general responsibilities of the radiographer.
  • Describe the practice standards for the radiographer as defined by the ASRT and state licensure.
  • Differentiate between culture and ethnicity.
  • Explain how a person’s cultural beliefs toward illness and health affect his or her health status.
  • Explain perceptions of dying and death from the viewpoint of both patient and radiographer.
  • Identify methods for determining the correct patient for a given procedure.
  • Explain the use of various communication models.
  • Explain specific aspects of a radiographic procedure to the patient.
  • Demonstrate correct principles of body mechanics applicable to patient care.
  • Demonstrate techniques for specific types of patient transfer.
  • Demonstrate select procedures to turn patients who have various health conditions.
  • Describe immobilization techniques for various types of procedures and patient conditions.
  • Describe specific patient safety measures and concerns.
  • Explain the purpose, legal considerations and procedures for incident reporting.
  • Describe methods to evaluate patient physical status.
  • List the information to be collected prior to a patient examination.
  • Describe vital signs and lab values used to assess the condition of the patient, including sites for assessment and normal values.
  • Define terms related to infection control.
  • Describe the importance of standard precautions and isolation procedures, including sources and modes of transmission of infection and disease and institutional control procedures.
  • Identify symptoms related to specific emergency situations.
  • Describe the institution’s emergency medical code system and the role of the student during a medical emergency.
  • Explain the age-specific considerations necessary when performing radiographic procedures.
  • Describe appropriate procedures for management of various types of trauma situations.
  • Describe the symptoms and medical interventions for a patient with a contrast agent reaction.
  • Explain the role of the radiographer in patient education.
  • Describe the patient preparation for contrast studies.
  • Identify specific types of tubes, lines, catheters and collection devices.
  • Outline the steps in the operation and maintenance of suction equipment.
  • Outline the steps in the operation and maintenance of oxygen equipment and demonstrate proper use.
  • Demonstrate competency in basic life support (BLS).
  • Describe the steps in performing various mobile procedures.
  • Describe the special problems faced in performing procedures on a patient with a tracheotomy and specific tubes, drains and catheters.
  • Describe the procedure for producing diagnostic images in the surgical suite.
  • Explain the appropriate radiation protection required when performing mobile/surgical radiography.

Radiographic Procedures

Description

Content provides the knowledge base necessary to perform standard imaging procedures and special studies. Consideration is given to the evaluation of optimal diagnostic images.

Content

  1. Standard Terminology for Positioning and Projection

    1. Standard terms
      1. Radiographic position
      2. Radiographic projection
      3. Radiographic view
      4. Radiographic method
    2. Positioning terminology
      1. Recumbent
      2. Supine
      3. Prone
      4. Trendelenburg
      5. Decubitus
      6. Erect/upright
      7. Anterior position
      8. Posterior position
      9. Oblique position
    3. General planes
      1. Sagittal or midsagittal
      2. Coronal or midcoronal
      3. Transverse
      4. Longitudinal
    4. Skull lines
      1. Glabellomeatal line
      2. Interpupillary line
      3. Orbitomeatal line
      4. Infraorbitomeatal line
      5. Acanthiomeatal line
      6. Mentomeatal line
    5. Skull landmarks
      1. Auricular point
      2. Gonion (angle)
      3. Mental point
      4. Acanthion
      5. Nasion
      6. Glabella
      7. Inner canthus
      8. Outer canthus
      9. Infraorbital margin
      10. Occlusal plane
      11. External auditory meatus (EAM)
      12. Mastoid tip
      13. Top of ear attachment (TEA)
    6. Surface landmarks
      1. Hyoid bone
      2. Thyroid cartilage
      3. Vertebra prominens
      4. Jugular notch
      5. Sternal angle
      6. Inferior angles of the scapula
      7. Xiphoid process
      8. Inferior costal margin
      9. Superior most aspect of iliac crest
      10. ASIS
      11. Pubic symphysis
      12. Greater trochanter
      13. PSIS
    7. Terminology of movement and direction
      1. Cephalad/caudad
      2. Inferior/superior
      3. Proximal/distal
      4. Plantar/palmar
      5. Pronate/supinate
      6. Flexion/extension
      7. Abduction/adduction
      8. Inversion/eversion
      9. Medial/lateral
    8. Positioning aids
      1. Sponges
      2. Sandbags
      3. Immobilization devices (e.g., tape, Velcro straps, Pigg-O-Stat
    9. Accessory equipment
      1. Calipers
      2. Lead strips
      3. Lead shields
      4. Lead markers
      5. Image receptor holders
      6. Compensating filters
  2. General Considerations

    1. Evaluation of radiographic orders
      1. Patient identification by two means
      2. Verification of procedure(s) ordered
      3. Review of clinical history
      4. Clinical history and patient assessment
        1. Role of the radiographer
        2. Questioning skills
        3. Chief complaint
        4. Allergy history
        5. Localization
        6. Chronology
        7. Severity
        8. Onset
        9. Aggravating or alleviating factors
        10. Associated manifestations
        11. Special considerations
      5. Exam sequencing
    2. Room preparation
      1. Cleanliness, organization, appearance and safety
      2. Necessary supplies and accessory equipment available
  3. Patient Considerations

    1. Establishment of rapport with patient
      1. Patient education
        1. Communication
        2. Common radiation safety issues and concerns
      2. Culture, ethnicity and diversity
      3. Determination of pregnancy
    2. Patient preparation
      1. Verification of appropriate dietary preparation
      2. Verification of appropriate medication preparation
      3. Appropriate disrobing and gowning
      4. Removal of items that may cause artifacts
    3. Patient assistance
    4. Patient monitoring
    5. Patient dismissal
  4. Positioning Considerations for Routine Radiographic Procedures

    1. Patient instructions
    2. Special considerations
      1. Atypical conditions
      2. Mobile procedures
      3. Surgical procedures
      4. Trauma
      5. Body mass index
      6. Cultural awareness
      7. Claustrophobia
    3. Positioning for the following studies
      1. Skeletal system
        1. Upper extremity
          1. Fingers
          2. Hand
          3. Wrist
          4. Forearm
          5. Elbow
          6. Humerus
        2. Shoulder
          1. Shoulder joint
          2. Scapula
          3. Clavicle
          4. Acromioclavicular articulations
        3. Lower extremity
          1. Toes
          2. Foot
          3. Ankle
          4. Calcaneus
          5. Tibia/fibula
          6. Knee/Patella
          7. Femur
        4. Pelvic girdle
          1. Pelvis
          2. Hip
        5. Vertebral column
          1. Cervical
          2. Thoracic
          3. Lumbar
          4. Sacrum
          5. Coccyx
          6. Sacroiliac articulations
        6. Bony thorax
          1. Ribs
          2. Sternum
          3. Sternoclavicular articulations
        7. Cranium
          1. Skull
          2. Facial bones
          3. Nasal bones
          4. Orbits/optic foramina
          5. Zygomatic arches
          6. Mandible
          7. Temporomandibular articulations
          8. Paranasal sinuses
        8. Special studies
          1. Bone survey
          2. Long bone measurement
          3. Bone age
          4. Foreign body
          5. Scoliosis survey
          6. Hysterosalpinography
          7. Myelography
          8. Arthrography
      2. Respiratory system
        1. Upper airway
        2. Chest
      3. Abdominal viscera
        1. Abdomen and GI series
        2. Urological studies
  5. Procedural Considerations for Contrast Studies

    1. Patient education
      1. General procedure
      2. Patient preparation
      3. Follow-up care
    2. Equipment and materials needed
    3. General procedure and follow-up care
    4. Patient and body part positioning
    5. Structures and functions demonstrated
    6. Positioning for abdomen and GI studies
      1. Abdomen and GI studies
        1. Abdomen
        2. Esophagus
        3. Swallowing dysfunctional study
        4. Upper GI series, single or double contrast
        5. Small bowel series
        6. Contrast enema, single or double
        7. Surgical cholangiography
        8. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
      2. Positioning for urological studies
        1. Cystography
        2. Cystourethography
        3. Intravenous urography
        4. Retrograde urography

Radiographic Procedures

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Describe standard positioning terms.
  • Demonstrate proper use of positioning aids.
  • Discuss general procedural considerations for radiographic exams.
  • Identify methods and barriers of communication and describe how each may be used or overcome effectively during patient education.
  • Explain radiographic procedures to patients and family members.
  • Modify directions to patients with various communication problems.
  • Develop an awareness of cultural factors that necessitate adapting standard exam protocols.
  • Adapt general procedural considerations to specific clinical settings.
  • Identify the structures demonstrated on routine radiographic and fluoroscopic images.
  • Adapt radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures for special considerations.
  • Simulate radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures on a person or phantom in a laboratory setting.
  • Evaluate images for positioning, centering, appropriate anatomy and overall image quality.
  • Discuss equipment and supplies necessary to complete basic radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures.
  • Explain the patient preparation necessary for various contrast and special studies.
  • Explain the routine and special positions and projections for all radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures.
  • Explain the purpose for using contrast media.
  • Name the type, dosage and route of administration of contrast media commonly used to perform radiographic contrast and special studies.
  • Describe the general purpose of radiographic and fluoroscopic studies.
  • Apply general radiation safety and protection practices associated with radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations.

Radiographic Pathology

Description

Content introduces concepts related to disease and etiological considerations with emphasis on radiographic appearance of disease and impact on exposure factor selection.

Content

  1. Definitions/Terminology

    1. Pathology
    2. Disease
      1. Acute
      2. Chronic
    3. Pathogenesis
    4. Etiology
    5. Diagnosis
      1. Signs (objective)
      2. Symptoms (subjective)
    6. Prognosis
    7. Manifestations of pathology
    8. Incidence
    9. Prevalence
    10. Morbidity
    11. Mortality
    12. Epidemiology
  2. Causes of Disease (Process, Examples)

    1. Pathological
    2. Traumatic
    3. Surgical
    4. Healing process
    5. Complications
    6. Genetics (caused by or contributed to by genetic factors) vs. heredity
    7. Congenital
  3. Radiologic Pathology (Definitions, Etiology, Examples, Sites, Complications, Prognosis, Radiographic Appearance, Procedural and Technical Considerations, Appropriate Imaging Modality)

    1. Skeletal
    2. Digestive
    3. Respiratory
    4. Urinary
    5. Reproductive
    6. Circulatory
    7. Endocrine
    8. Nervous
  4. Implications for Practice

    1. Indications for procedure
    2. Relevance to radiographic procedures
      1. Technical considerations
      2. Patient considerations

Radiographic Pathology

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Define basic terms related to pathology.
  • Describe the basic manifestations of pathological conditions and their relevance to radiologic procedures.
  • Discuss the classifications of trauma.
  • Describe imaging procedures used in diagnosing disease.
  • List the causes of tissue disruption.
  • Describe the healing process.
  • Identify complications connected with the repair and replacement of tissue.
  • Describe the various systemic classifications of disease in terms of etiology, types, common sites, complications and prognosis.
  • Describe the radiographic appearance of diseases.
  • Identify imaging procedures and interventional techniques appropriate for diseases common to each body system.
  • Identify diseases caused by or connected to genetic factors.

Additional Modalities and Radiation Therapy

Description

Content is designed to provide a brief overview of other imaging modalities and patient treatments.

Content

  1. Bone Densitometry
  2. Cardiac-interventional
  3. Computed Tomography
  4. Magnetic Resonance
  5. Mammography
  6. Medical Dosimetry
  7. Nuclear Medicine
  8. Radiation Therapy
  9. Ultrasound/Sonography
  10. Vascular-interventional

Additional Modalities and Radiation Therapy

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Recognize and compare basic equipment used in various imaging modalities and radiation therapy.
  • Define basic terms related to dose differences.
  • Compare and contrast different types of radiation.
  • Explain basic terms related to patient preparations.
  • Define basic terms related to indications and contraindications.
  • Identify educational and certification requirements.
  • Discuss the image appearance and basic principles of operation for equipment used in various imaging modalities and radiation therapy.

Optional Content

This section is intended to decrease the hardship imposed on programs by requiring instructional content that is representative of technologies and technical principles that have been replaced with newer technical systems. It is recognized that traditional technologies are still part of the fabric of many communities. Content in this section will assist programs wishing to enhance the curriculum with select topics of instruction intended to satisfy the mission of a given program or local employment market.

The Basic Principles of Computed Tomography content in this section will aid programs in developing computed tomography instruction beyond a brief introduction to this technology.

Basic Principles of Computed Tomography

Description

Content is designed to provide entry-level radiography students with an introduction to, and basic understanding of, the operation of a computed tomography (CT) device. Content is not

intended to result in clinical competency. Although this may not be seen in the ARRT mandatory or elective radiography clinical competencies, a basic understanding of computed tomography is increasingly expected of new program graduates. In planning student clinical experiences, radiography programs with sufficient local resources are encouraged to provide students with clinical exposure to computed tomography.

Content

  1. Computed Tomography Generations: Capabilities and Limitations

    1. First
    2. Second
    3. Third
    4. Fourth
    5. Fifth
    6. Spiral
  2. Components, Operations and Processes

    1. Data acquisition
      1. Methods
        1. Slice-by-slice
        2. Volumetric
      2. Elements
        1. Beam geometry
          1. Parallel
          2. Fan
          3. Spiral
      3. Data acquisition system (DAS)
        1. Components
          1. Tube
          2. Detectors
          3. Filters
          4. Collimators
          5. ADC
        2. Functions
          1. Measurement of transmitted beam
          2. Data transmission to computer
      4. Data acquisition process
        1. Scanning/raw data/image data
          1. Rays
          2. Views
          3. Profiles
            1. Pixels
            2. Matrices
            3. Voxels
        2. Attenuation
          1. Linear attenuation coefficients
          2. CT numbers (Hounsfield numbers)
            1. Baseline reference numbers
              1. Water equal to 0
              2. Bone (white) equal to 400 to 1000 HU
              3. Air (black) equal to -1000 HU
        3. Selectable scan factors
          1. Scan field of view
          2. Display field of view
          3. Matrix size
          4. Slice thickness
          5. Algorithm
          6. Scan time and rotational arc
          7. Radiographic tube output
          8. Region of interest (ROI)
          9. Magnification
          10. Focal spot size and tube geometry
    2. Factors controlling image appearance
      1. Artifacts
      2. Contrast resolution (window width)
      3. Grayscale manipulation (window level)
      4. Distortion
      5. Noise
      6. Spatial resolution
    3. Postprocessing
      1. Image reformation
      2. Image smoothing
      3. Edge enhancement
      4. Window level and width
  3. Radiation Protection

    1. Methods for reducing radiation dose to the patient
      1. Technical factor selection
      2. Technical adjustments for children
      3. Scatter radiation reduction
    2. Reducing the radiographer’s exposure to scatter radiation
    3. Measurement units in CT
      1. CT dose index (CTDI)
      2. Multiple scan average dose (MSAD)
      3. Dose length product (DLP)
    4. CT immobilization devices
      1. Straps
      2. Head holders
      3. IV arm boards

Basic Principles of Computed Tomography

Objectives

This list of learning objectives serves as a resource for programs:

  • Explain the difference between reconstructing and reformatting an image.
  • Cite the structures demonstrated on commonly performed CT images.
  • Describe commonly performed CT procedures.
  • Evaluate images for positioning, centering, appropriate anatomy and overall image quality.
  • Discuss equipment and supplies necessary to complete commonly performed CT procedures.
  • Explain the CT acquisition protocol for commonly performed head/neck, thorax and abdomen procedures.
  • Explain the patient preparation necessary for commonly performed CT contrast studies.
  • Name the type, dosage purpose, and route of contrast administration for common CT procedures.
  • Describe the components of the CT imaging system.
  • Explain the functions of collimators in CT.
  • List the CT computer data processing steps.
  • Define algorithm and explain its impact on image scan factors and reconstruction.
  • Define raw data and image data.
  • Describe the following terms in relation to the CT data acquisition process:
    • Pixel.
    • Matrix.
    • Voxel.
    • Linear attenuation coefficient.
    • CT/Hounsfield number.
    • Partial volume averaging.
    • Window width (ww) and window level (wl).
    • Spatial resolution.
    • Contrast resolution.
    • Noise.
    • Annotation.
    • Region of interest (ROI).
  • Name the common controls found on CT operator consoles and describe how and why each is used.
  • Identify the types and appearance of artifacts most commonly affecting CT images.
  • Name the radiation protection devices that can be used to reduce patient dose in CT and describe the correct application of each.
  • Describe the general purpose of commonly performed CT studies.
  • Discuss general radiation safety and protection practices associated with examinations in CT.

Sectional Anatomy

Description

Content begins with a review of gross anatomy of the entire body. Detailed study of gross anatomical structures will be conducted systematically for location, relationship to other structures and function.

Gross anatomical structures are located and identified in axial (transverse), sagittal, coronal and orthogonal (oblique) planes. Illustrations and anatomy images will be compared with MR and CT images in the same imaging planes and at the same level when applicable. The characteristic appearance of each anatomical structure as it appears on a CT, MR and ultrasound image, when applicable, will be stressed.

Content

  1. Head and Brain

    1. Surface anatomy of the brain
      1. Fissures (sulci)
        1. Longitudinal cerebral
        2. Lateral (Sylvian)
        3. Central (of Rolando)
      2. Convolutions (gyri)
        1. Precentral
        2. Postcentral
    2. Sinuses
      1. Frontal
      2. Maxillary
      3. Ethmoidal
      4. Sphenoidal
    3. Facial bones
      1. Mandible
      2. Maxillae
      3. Zygomas
      4. Nasal bones
    4. Facial muscles
    5. Cranial bones
      1. Frontal
      2. Ethmoid
        1. Nasal conchae (turbinates)
        2. Nasal septum
      3. Parietal
      4. Sphenoid
        1. Lesser wings
          1. Tuberculum sellae
          2. Sella turcica
          3. Dorsum sellae
          4. Anterior and posterior clinoid process
          5. Optic canals
        2. Greater wings
          1. Foramen rotundum
          2. Foramen ovale
            1. Foramen spinosum
      5. Occipital
        1. Foramen magnum
        2. Internal and external occipital protuberance
        3. Jugular foramen
      6. Temporal
        1. Zygomatic process
        2. External auditory meatus (EAM)
        3. Internal auditory canal
        4. Mastoid process
        5. Petrous portion or ridge
    6. Lobes of the brain and midline cerebral hemisphere structures
      1. Frontal
      2. Parietal
      3. Occipital
      4. Temporal
      5. Insula (Island of Reil)
      6. Cerebellum
      7. Corpus callosum (genu, rostrum, body and splenium)
      8. Septum pellucidum
      9. Sella turcica
      10. Pineal gland
      11. Falx cerebri
      12. Septum pellucidum
    7. Cranial nerves
      1. Olfactory
      2. Optic
      3. Oculomotor
      4. Trochlear
      5. Trigeminal
      6. Abducens
      7. Facial
      8. Vestibulocochlear
      9. Glossopharyngeal
      10. Vagus
      11. Accessory
      12. Hypoglossal
    8. Brainstem and adjoining structures
      1. Diencephalon
        1. Thalamus
        2. Hypothalamus
        3. Optic chiasm
        4. Optic tracts
        5. Infundibulum (pituitary stalk)
        6. Pituitary gland
        7. Mammillary bodies
        8. Pineal gland
      2. Midbrain
      3. Pons
      4. Medulla oblongata
        1. Spinal cord
    9. Arteries (Circle of Willis)
      1. Vertebral
      2. Basilar
      3. Internal carotid
      4. Anterior and posterior communicating
      5. Anterior and posterior cerebral
      6. Middle cerebral
    10. Veins
      1. Venous sinuses
        1. Superior sagittal sinus
        2. Vein of Galen
        3. Straight sinus
        4. Confluence of sinuses (torcular herophili)
        5. Transverse sinus
        6. Sigmoid sinus
      2. Internal jugular
    11. Ventricular system
      1. Lateral ventricles (anterior, body, posterior, inferior or temporal and trigone or antrium)
      2. Interventricular foramen (of Monro)
      3. Third ventricle
      4. Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)
      5. Fourth ventricle
      6. Foramen of Luschka
      7. Foramen of Magendie
      8. Choroid plexus
    12. Meninges
      1. Dura mater
        1. Extensions of the dura mater
          1. Falx cerebri
          2. Falx cerebelli
          3. Tentorium cerebelli
          4. Diaphragma sellae
      2. Arachnoid
      3. Pia mater
    13. Basal ganglia
      1. Caudate nucleus
      2. Putamen
      3. Globus pallidus
      4. Claustrum
      5. Internal capsule
      6. External capsule
      7. Extreme capsule
    14. Orbit
      1. Globe
      2. Lens
      3. Optic nerve
      4. Lacrimal gland
      5. Lateral rectus muscle
      6. Medial rectus muscle
      7. Superior rectus muscle
      8. Inferior rectus muscle
      9. Superior oblique muscle
      10. Inferior oblique muscle
      11. Orbital fat
      12. Ophthalmic artery
      13. Retinal vein
    15. Anatomical structures of brain
      1. Diploe
      2. Subcutaneous soft tissue
      3. Superior sagittal sinus (anterior and posterior)
      4. Central sulcus
      5. Interhemispheric fissure
      6. Falx cerebri
      7. Centrum semiovale
      8. Corpus callosum (genu, rostrum, body and splenium)
      9. Septum pellucidum
      10. Fornix
      11. Sylvian fissure
      12. Insula
      13. Lentiform nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus)
      14. Caudate nucleus (head)
      15. Internal capsule (anterior, body and posterior sections)
      16. External capsule
      17. Claustrum
      18. Hippocampus
      19. Cerebral peduncles
      20. Mammillary bodies
      21. Tentorium cerebelli
      22. Petrous portion or ridge
      23. Cerebellar tonsil
      24. Internal auditory canal (IAC)
      25. Nasal septum
      26. External auditory canal (EAC)
      27. Clivus
      28. Mastoid air cells
    16. Lines of angulation (imaging baselines)
      1. Supraorbitomeatal line
      2. Orbitomeatal line
      3. Infraorbitomeatal line
    17. Anatomical landmarks
      1. Glabella
      2. Nasion
      3. Acanthion
      4. Mental point
      5. External auditory meatus (EAM)
  2. Neck

    1. Bones
      1. Cervical vertebrae
    2. Organs
      1. Pharynx
      2. Larynx
      3. Esophagus
      4. Trachea
      5. Salivary glands
      6. Thyroid gland
      7. Parathyroid glands
      8. Lymph nodes
    3. Vasculature and neurovasculature
      1. Carotid arteries
      2. Vertebral arteries
      3. Jugular veins
      4. Carotid sheath
    4. Musculature
      1. Anterior triangle
      2. Posterior triangle
  3. Chest and Mediastinum

    1. Bony thorax
      1. Thoracic vertebrae
      2. Sternum
      3. Ribs
      4. Costal cartilages
      5. Scapulae
      6. Clavicles
    2. Pulmonary
      1. Apices (lung)
      2. Diaphragm
      3. Angles
      4. Hilum
      5. Lobes (lungs)
      6. Trachea
      7. Carina
      8. Primary (mainstem) bronchi
      9. Secondary bronchi
    3. Mediastinum
      1. Thymus gland
      2. Heart
        1. Arteries
        2. Veins
        3. Chamber
        4. Valves
      3. Pulmonary vessels
      4. Coronary vessels
      5. Ascending aorta
      6. Aortic arch
      7. Branches of the aortic arch
      8. Descending (thoracic) aorta
      9. Inferior vena cava
      10. Esophagus
      11. Trachea
      12. Thoracic duct
      13. Lymph nodes
      14. Azygos vein
      15. Hemiazygos vein
    4. Breasts
    5. Musculature
  4. Abdomen

    1. Diaphragm and openings
      1. Aortic hiatus
      2. Caval hiatus
      3. Esophageal hiatus
    2. Surface landmarks and regions
      1. Quadrants
        1. Upper left
        2. Upper right
        3. Lower left
        4. Lower right
    3. Addison's planes (regions)
      1. Left hypochrondric
      2. Epigastric
      3. Right hypochondric
      4. Left lumbar
      5. Umbilical
      6. Right lumbar
      7. Left iliac
      8. Hypogastric
      9. Right iliac
    4. Branches of the abdominal aorta
      1. Anterior visceral branches
        1. Celiac axis
          1. Left gastric
          2. Splenic
          3. Hepatic
      2. Superior mesenteric
        1. Jejunal and ileal
        2. Inferior pancreaticoduodenal
        3. Middle colic
        4. Right colic
        5. Ileocolic
      3. Inferior mesenteric
        1. Left colic
        2. Sigmoid
        3. Superior rectal
      4. Lateral visceral branches
        1. Suprarenal
        2. Renal
        3. Testicular or ovarian
      5. Parietal branches
        1. Inferior phrenics
        2. Lumbars
        3. Middle sacral
      6. Terminal branches
        1. Common iliacs
    5. Tributaries of the vena cava
      1. Anterior visceral
        1. Hepatic veins
      2. Lateral visceral
        1. Right suprarenal
        2. Renal veins
        3. Right testicular or ovarian
      3. Tributaries of origin
        1. Common iliacs
        2. Median sacral
    6. Tributaries of the portal vein
      1. Splenic
      2. Inferior mesenteric
      3. Superior mesenteric
        1. Left gastric
        2. Right gastric
        3. Cystic
    7. Abdominal organs and structures
      1. Bony structures
        1. Lumbar vertebrae
      2. Abdominal cavity
        1. Peritoneum
        2. Peritoneal space
        3. Retroperitoneum
        4. Retroperitoneal space
      3. Liver
        1. Hepatic arteries
        2. Portal veinous system
      4. Gallbladder and biliary system
      5. Pancreas and pancreatic ducts
      6. Spleen
      7. Adrenal glands
      8. Urinary system and tract
        1. Kidneys
        2. Ureters
      9. Stomach
      10. Small intestine
      11. Colon
      12. Musculature
  5. Pelvis

    1. Bony structures
      1. Proximal femur
      2. Ilium
      3. Ischium
      4. Pubis
      5. Sacrum
      6. Coccyx
    2. Pelvic vasculature
      1. Arterial
        1. Common iliacs
        2. Internal iliacs
        3. External iliacs
        4. Ovarian/testicular
      2. Venous
        1. External iliacs
        2. Internal iliacs
        3. Common iliacs
        4. Ovarian/testicular
    3. Pelvic organs
      1. Urinary bladder
        1. Ureter
        2. Urethra
      2. Small intestine
        1. Terminal ilium and ileocecal valve
      3. Colon
        1. Ascending
        2. Descending
        3. Sigmoid
        4. Rectum
        5. Vermiform appendix
      4. Female reproductive organs
        1. Vagina
        2. Cervix
        3. Uterus
        4. Fallopian tubes
        5. Ovaries
      5. Male reproductive organs
        1. Testes/scrotum
        2. Prostate gland
        3. Seminal vesicles
        4. External to pelvis
          1. Penis
  6. Musculoskeletal

    1. Upper extremities
      1. Shoulder
        1. Bony anatomy
          1. Clavicle
          2. Scapula
          3. Humerus
          4. Acromioclavicular joint
        2. Muscles and tendons
          1. Deltoid
          2. Supraspinatus
          3. Infraspinatus
          4. Teres minor
          5. Subscapularis
          6. Supraspinatus tendon
          7. Biceps tendon
        3. Labrum and ligaments
          1. Glenoid labrum
          2. Glenohumeral ligaments
          3. Coracoacromial ligament
          4. Coracoclavicular ligaments
          5. Bursa (subacromial and subdeltoid)
        4. Vascularity
      2. Elbow
        1. Bony anatomy
          1. Humerus
          2. Radius
          3. Ulnar
        2. Muscles and tendons
          1. Anterior group
          2. Posterior group
          3. Lateral group
          4. Medial group
        3. Ligaments
          1. Ulnar collateral
          2. Radial collateral
          3. Annular
        4. Neurovasculature
          1. Brachial artery
          2. Radial artery
          3. Ulnar artery
          4. Basilic vein
          5. Cephalic vein
          6. Median cubital vein
          7. Ulnar nerve
      3. Hand and wrist
        1. Bony anatomy
        2. Phalanges
        3. Metacarpals
          1. Carpal bones
          2. Radius
          3. Ulnar
        4. Tendons
          1. Palmar tendon group
          2. Dorsal tendon group
          3. Triangular fibrocartilage complex
        5. Neurovascular
          1. Ulnar artery
          2. Ulnar nerve
          3. Radial artery
          4. Median nerve
    2. Lower Extremities
      1. Hip
        1. Bony anatomy
        2. Labrum and ligaments
        3. Muscle groups
        4. Neurovasculature
      2. Knee
        1. Bony anatomy
        2. Menisci and ligaments
        3. Muscles
        4. Vasculature
      3. Foot and Ankle
        1. Bony anatomy
        2. Ligaments
        3. Tendons
        4. Muscles

Sectional Anatomy

Objectives

  • Name the anatomical structures located within the head and neck.
  • Describe the relationship of each anatomical structure in the head and neck to surrounding structures.
  • Describe the function of each anatomical structure in the head and neck.
  • Locate each anatomical structure on CT, MR and ultrasound images in the transverse axial, coronal, sagittal and orthogonal (oblique) cross-sectional imaging planes.
  • Name the anatomical structures located within the thorax.
  • Describe the relationship of each thoracic structure to surrounding structures.
  • Describe the function of each anatomical structure located within the thorax.
  • Locate each anatomical structure of the thorax on CT, MR and ultrasound images in the transverse axial, coronal, sagittal and oblique imaging planes.
  • List and describe the function of each anatomical structure located within the abdomen and pelvis.
  • Describe the relationship of each anatomical structure in the abdomen and pelvis to surrounding structures.
  • Locate each anatomical structure of the abdomen and pelvis on CT, MR, PET and ultrasound images in the axial, coronal, sagittal and oblique planes.
  • Name and describe the function of each anatomical structure located in the upper and lower extremities.
  • Locate each anatomical structure in the upper and lower extremities on CT and MR images in the transverse axial, coronal, sagittal and oblique planes.

Radiologic Science Resources

This list of radiologic science resources will assist educators in sampling the pool of references and study materials that pertain to medical radiography. The resources list should be viewed as a snapshot of available materials. Omission of any one title is not intentional. Because the creation of literature and media related to the field is dynamic, educators are encouraged to search additional sources for recent updates, revisions and additions to this collection of titles.

Textbooks

American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Acceptance Testing and Quality Control of Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Imaging Systems. Report of AAPM Task Group 10. www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/RPT_93.pdf. Published October 2006.

American Association of Physicists in Medicine. An Exposure Indicator for Digital Radiography. Report of AAPM Task Group 116. www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/RPT_116.pdf. Published July 2009.

Adler AM, Carlton R. Introduction to Radiography and Patient Care. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2007.

Adler AM, Carlton R, Poelhuis DJ, Kowalczyk NK. Workbook W/Lab Exercises for Principles of Radiographic Imaging. 4th ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning; 2006.

Adolina VF, Lille SL. Mammographic Imaging: A Practical Guide. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health; 2010.

Applegate E. The Sectional Anatomy Learning System: Concepts and Applications. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2010.

Biedrzycki A. The Radiography Procedure and Competency Manual. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA:

F.A. Davis; 2008.

Blickman H. Pediatric Radiology. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby-Year Book Inc.; 2009.

Bonnick SL. Bone Densitometry in Clinical Practice: Application & Interpretation. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.

Bontrager K, Lampignano J. Pocket Atlas-Handbook of Radiographic Positioning and Techniques. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2010.

Bontrager K. Radiographic Positioning and Related Anatomy. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2009.

Bontrager K, Lampignano J. Workbook and Laboratory Manual, 7th ed. Volumes I and II. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2009.

Brennan P, Seeram E. Digital Radiography. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing Professional; 2007.

Browne MN, Keeley SM. Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking. 9th ed. Upper Saddle Rivers, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2010.

Bushberg JT, et al. The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, 3rd, North American Edition; 2012

Bushong SC. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical and Biological Principles. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2015.

Bushong SC. Mosby's Radiography Online: Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2008.

Bushong SC. Mosby's Radiography Online: Radiographic Imaging. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2008.

Bushong SC. Mosby's Radiography Online: Radiologic Physics. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2008.

Bushong SC. Radiologic Science for Technologists: Physics, Biology, and Protection. 11th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2017.

Bushong SC. Radiologic Science for Technologists Workbook and Laboratory Manual. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2008.

Callaway WJ. Mosby’s Comprehensive Review of Radiography. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby; 2012.

Callaway WJ, Gurley LT. Introduction to Radiologic Technology. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby; 2010.

Campeau F, Fleitz J. Limited Radiography. 3rd ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, Inc; 2009. Carlton RR, Adler AM. Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and a Science. 4th ed.

Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers; 2006.

Carlton RR, Greathouse JS. Delmar’s Principles of Radiographic Positioning & Procedures Pocket Guide. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers; 2005.

Carroll QB. Fuch’s Radiographic Exposure, Processing, and Quality Control. 7th ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 2003.

Carroll QB. Instructor Resources for Radiography in the Digital Age. 2nd ed. 2014

Carroll QB. Practical Radiographic Imaging. 8th ed.; 2007

Carroll QB. Radiography in the Digital Age. 2nd ed.. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 2014. Carroll QB. Radiography in the Digital Age: Instructor PowerPoint Slide Series. 2nd ed.; 2014

Carroll QB. Radiography in the Digital Age: Physics, Exposure, Radiation Biology 2nd Edition; Charles C. Thomas; 2014

Carroll QB. Student Workbook for Radiography in the Digital (2nd Ed.); 2014

Carroll QB., Bowman D. Adaptive Radiography with Trauma, Image Critique and Critical Thinking 1st ed; 2014.

Carter C, Vealé B. Digital Radiography and PACS. 1st ed. revised. St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier; 2009.

Chabner DE. The Language of Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 2014.

Cummings GR, Meizner E. Corectec’s Comprehensive Set of Review Questions for Radiography. 5th ed. Athens, GA: Corectec; 2005.

Dahnert W. Radiology Review Manual. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Williams & Wilkins; 2011. ISBN 1609139437

Daldrup-Link HE, Gooding CA. Essentials of Pediatric Radiology: A Multimodality Approach. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2010.

Dance DR, et al. Diagnostic radiology physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students, 1st ed. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 2014.

Davidhizar RE, Newman Giger J. (editors). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment & Intervention. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2007.

DeMaio D. Mosby's Exam Review for Computed Tomography. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2011.

Diestler S. Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User Friendly Manual. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2008.

Diller JV. Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning; 2011.

Drafke MW, Nakayama H. Trauma and Mobile Radiography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis; 2001.

Dreyer KJ, Mehta A, Thrall JH, Hisrchorn DS, eds. PACS – A Guide to the Digital Revolution. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.

Eisenberg RL, Johnson NM. Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2007.

Eisenberg RL, Johnson NM. Workbook for Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2007.

Erlich RA, Daly JA. Patient Care in Radiography: With an Introduction to Medical Imaging. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2008.

Erkonen WE, Smith WL, eds. Radiology 101: The Basics and Fundamentals of Imaging. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.

Fauber TL. Radiographic Imaging and Exposure, 4th ed. Elsevier; 2013.

Forshier S. Essentials of Radiation: Biology and Protection. 2nd ed. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar; 2008.

Fosbinder RA, Mason S. Essentials of Radiologic Science. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

Fosbinder RA, Orth D. Essentials of Radiologic Science Workbook. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

Long BW, Rollins, JH, Smith BJ. Merrill’s Atlas of Radiographic Positions & Radiologic Procedures. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby; 2016. 13th edition

Long BW, Curtis, T., Smith BJ. Merrill's Pocket Guide to Radiography. 13th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2016.

Long, BW, Smith, BJ. Mosby's Radiography Online: Anatomy and Positioning for Merrill's Atlas of Radiographic Positioning & Procedures. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2016. 13th edition

Long BW, Smith BJ, Curtis, Workbook for Merrill’s Atlas of Radiographic Positions & Radiologic Procedures. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2016. 13th edition

Gollnick DA. Basic Radiation Protection Technology. 54th ed. Altadena, CA: Pacific Radiation Corp.; 2006.

Graham D, Cloke P, Vosper M. Principles and Applications of Radiological Physics. 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2011.

Gunn C. Digital and Radiographic Imaging: A Practical Approach. 4th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008.

Gunn C. Digital and Radiographic Imaging: A Practical Approach, 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2009.

Gurley LT, Callaway WJ. Introduction to Radiologic Technology. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby; 2011.

Guy JF. Learning Human Anatomy: A Laboratory Text and Workbook. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2008.

Gylys BA, Masters RM. Medical Terminology Simplified: A Programmed Learning Approach by Body System. 54th ed. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.; 2014.

Hall EJ, Giaccia AJ. Radiobiology for the Radiologist. 76th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

Hardy M, Snaith B. Musculoskeletal Trauma: A Guide to Assessment and Diagnosis. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 2010.

Harvey CP, Allard MJ. Understanding and Managing Diversity: Readings, Cases, and Exercises. 64th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2014.

Hendee WR, Ritenour ER. Medical Imaging Physics. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss; 2002.

Herrmann et al. American Society of Radiologic Technologists (2012). Best practices in digital radiography (white paper). Albuquerque, NM.

Huang HK. PACS and Imaging Informatics. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss; 2010.

Huda W, Slone RM. Review of Radiologic Physics. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.

Lanca L, Silva A. Digital Imaging Systems for Plain Radiography Springer 2013.

Lavery, J., Hughes W., Doran, K Critical Thinking: An Introduction to the Basic Skills. 6th ed. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press; 2009.

Jensen SC, Peppers MP. Pharmacology and Drug Administration for Imaging Technologists.

2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby; 2006.

Johnston J, Fauber TL. Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2011.

Kelley LL, Peterson CM. Sectional Anatomy for Imaging Professionals 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2012

Kelley LL, Peterson CM. Workbook for Sectional Anatomy for Imaging Professionals. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2007.

Kowalczyk N, Mace JD. Radiographic Pathology for Technologists. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier; 2008. 6th ed with 7th ed to come in 2017 or 2018

LaGuardia D, Guth HP. American Voices: Culture and Community. 6th ed. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.; 2006.

Lazo DL. Fundamentals of Sectional Anatomy. Clifton Park, NJ: Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.

Madden ME. Introduction to Sectional Anatomy. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

Madden ME. Sectional Anatomy Review. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams &Wilkins; 2001.

Marieb EN, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings; 2010.

Martin JE. Physics for Radiation Protection. 2nd ed. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH; 2006.

McCance KL, Huether SE. Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. 6th ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2009.

McQuillen Martensen K. Radiographic Image Analysis. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders; 2011.

Meistrich ML. Radiation Protection Guidance. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements; 2000.

Mettler FA, Upton AC. Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2008.

Mulvihill ML, et al. Human Disease: A Systemic Approach. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education; 2009.

NCRP Reports - www.ncrppublications.org. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

Nosich GM. Learning to Think Through: A Guide to Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2008.

O’Neil SL, Chapman EN. Your Attitude is Showing. 12th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2007.

Papp J. Quality Management in the Imaging Sciences. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2011.

Parelli RJ. Medicolegal Issues for Radiographers. 4th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group; 2008.

Pianykh OS. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM): A Practical Introduction and Survival Guide. NY, NY: Springer; 2010.

Perkins M. The Practical Guide to Digital Imaging: Mastering the Terms, Technologies, and Techniques. Buffalo, NY: Amherst Media; 2005.

Poelhuis DJ, Kowalczyk N, Carlton R, Adler AM. Workbook W/Lab Exercises for Principles of Radiographic Imaging. 4th ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers; 2005.

Purtilo RB, Doherty R. Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Saunders; 2010.

Ruggiero VR. Becoming a Critical Thinker. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 2008.

Saia DA. Appleton & Lange's Review for the Radiography Examination. 94th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange; 2012.

Saia DA. Radiography PREP: Program Review & Exam Preparation. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011.

Seeram E. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2015.

Seeram E. Digital Radiography: An Introduction for Technologists. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning; 2011.

Seeram E. Rad Tech’s Guide to Radiation Protection. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; 2001.

Shephard C. Radiographic Image Production and Manipulation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2003.

Shier D, Butler J, Lewis R. Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. 12th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education; 2009.

Snopek AM. Fundamentals of Special Radiographic Procedures. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2006.

Spector RE. Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness. 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016.

Squire LF, Novelline RA. Fundamentals of Radiology. 6th ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2004.

Statkiewicz-Sherer MA. Workbook for Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2015.

Statkiewicz-Sherer MA, Visconti PJ, Ritenour ER. Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography. 7th ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2015.

Swartz JD, Loevner L. Imaging of the Temporal Bone. 4th ed. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.; 2008.

Torres LS, Dutton AG, Linn-Watson Norcutt TA. Basic Medical Techniques & Patient Care in Imaging Technology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.

Tortorici M. Advanced Radiographic and Angiographic Procedures: With an Introduction to Specialized Imaging. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis; 2010.

Towsley-Cook DM, Young TA. Ethical and Legal Issues for Imaging Professionals. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2007

Wolbarst AB. Physics of Radiology. 2nd ed. Madison, WI: Medical Physics; 2005.

Journals

Applied Radiology. Anderson Publishing Ltd, Ocean, NJ.

Diagnostic Imaging. United Business Media, San Francisco, CA.

Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. Published by Elsevier for the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists (CAMRT).

Journal of Vascular Technology. Society of Vascular Technology, Lanham, MD.

Radiography. The College of Radiographers, St. Louis, MO.

Radiologic Science and Education. Association of Educators in Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Albuquerque, NM.

Radiologic Technology. American Society of Radiologic Technologists, Albuquerque, NM.

Radiology. Radiological Society of North America, Oak Brook, IL.

Appendix

Curriculum Revision Workgroup:

Special recognition must be given to the individuals who volunteered their time as members of the curriculum revision project:

Richard Angulo, M.A.O.L., R.T.(R)
Radiography Faculty
Pima Medical Institute

Quinn Carroll, M.Ed., R.T.(R)
Author
Denton, Texas

Kelli Welch Haynes, M.S.R.S., R.T.(R)
Program Director and Associate Professor
Northwestern State University

Jay Hicks, M.S.R.S., R.T.(R)(ARRT)
Executive Associate Director
JRCERT

Myke Kudlas, M.Ed., R.T.(R)(QM), CIIP
Associate Executive Director
American Society of Radiologic Technologists

Tricia Leggett, D.H.Ed., R.T.(R)(QM)
Vice President for Student Success
Zane State College

James McGowan, B.Sc., R.T.(R)(QM)
EW Radiology Quality Metrics Safety Manager
Presbyterian Healthcare Services

Joy Menser, Ed.D., R.T.(R)(T)
Program Coordinator
Owensboro Community and Technical College

Matthew Millard, M.S.T.D., R.T.(R)(CT)
Director
School of Radiologic Technology
UnityPoint Health-Des Moines

Daniel Sandoval, M.S., DABR
Medical Physicist
Director of IT for Radiology
University of New Mexico Department of Radiology

Craig St. George, M.S., RT (R)(VI)
Director of Education
American Society of Radiologic Technologists

Beverly J. Tupper, M.S., R.T.(R)(CV)(ARRT)
Exam Development Coordinator
American Registry of Radiologic Technologists

Virginia Vanderford, M.Ed., R.T.(R)(M)
Director Medical Imaging
Portland Community College

Patricia Willett, B.S., R.T.(R)(CT)
Clinical Coordinator
Northern Essex Community College

Andrew Woodward, M.A., R.T.(R)(CT)(QM)
Assistant Professor
Division of Radiologic Science
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine

We also wish to express our sincere appreciation for the many contributions and suggestions from the professional community over the lifespan of this project.